# Aerodynamics

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Pitch, Roll and Yaw Pitch, Roll, and Yaw have analogy of imaginary lines (three in number) that run through a typical aircraft and intersect at right angles at the aircraft’s center of gravity.  Pitch- Rotation around the side-to-side axis.  Roll -Rotation around the front-to-back axis.  Yaw-Rotation around the vertical axis. Maintaining Control FIGURE 1 Maintaining Controls Rudder controls yaw The rudder swivels side to side on the vertical tail fin, hence pushing the tail in right or left direction. Rudders with the help of ailerons turn the aircraft. Ailerons control roll Two ailerons on the outer rear edge of each wing move in opposite directions, that is up and down, increasing lift on one wing while decreasing it on the other. Consequently, the aircraft rolls to the right or left. Ailerons tilt the wings in the required direction hence turns the aircraft. Elevator controls pitch The elevator tilts down or up on a horizontal tail surface leading to an increased or decreased lift on the tail. An aircraft’s nose is tilted down or up. Main control surfaces Ailerons Aircrafts use aileron tabs or ailerons in obtaining lateral control. Ailerons are hinged on the outer edge of the wings; they are movable and controlled from cockpit via mechanical linkage. When lowered, aileron increases angle of attack on the wing hence increasing the lift; and vice versa. This allows an aircraft to roll laterally around longitudinal axis FIGURE 2 Effects of Ailerons Rudder If rudder is uninterruptedly applied to same plane flight, the aircraft yaws in the direction of the applied rudder at the first instance. But with time the aircraft banks in the direction of yaw. The above phenomena occur due to increased speed of the wing as opposed to... ... middle of paper ... ...eable surface, that is attached to a vertical stabilizer (fixed surface) deflects for the generation lift force in sideways direction. Since the rudder and vertical stabilizer are towards the rear of the aircraft, that is some distance from aircraft’s center of gravity, it implies that lift force that both generate result in a moment about the vertical axis(y-axis) that result to an aircraft to yaw. FIGURE 7 Yawing (Rotation along z-Axis) References CAA Flight Instructor Guide. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2014, from Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand: www.caa.govt.nz Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2014, from Federal Aviation Administration: www.faa.gov/ NASA. (2013). Control Surfaces. Retrieved April 12, 2014, from National Aeronautics and Space Administration: hhtps://flight.nasa.gov/pdf/axes_control_surfaces_5-8.pdf