There, one of them may meet with the egg as it travels down one of the tubes toward the uterus. Intercourse is not the only way to get sperm in position. Another way is for a doctor to place sperm cells directly into the woman's uterus at the right time in her cycle, a technique called intrauterine insemination. These sperm can also swim up the fallopian tubes, seeking the egg. Furthermore, when the sperm meets the egg, they attempt to penetrate the egg's outer layer.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is a procedure in which an egg (oocyte) from a woman’s ovaries is removed and separately fertilized with male sperm in a laboratory before being implanted into the woman’s fallopian tubes. 1 2 The first stage of IVF is called superovulation. Follicles are structures within which the oocyte develops, in order to retrieve multiple follicles several hormone and drug combinations are administered. Consequently, the ovary stops function and allows the follicles to ripen at the same time when stimulated therefore providing an increased number of eggs to harvest. Follicles are considered mature after 8 to 9 days and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is administered which enables the final maturation of the oocytes.3 Oocyte retrieval occurs through a procedure called ultrasound guided vaginal retrieval.
The technique of in vitro fertilization or IVF removes several eggs from the ovaries for fertilization in the laboratory. After a few days, one or two of these fertilized eggs which are now known as embryos are returned to the uterus in the hope that they implant and become a pregnancy. Women undergoing IVF are given special reproductive hormones to encourage several eggs to develop in the ovaries. Final maturation of the egg itself is induced by the administration of a further hormone. Thirty-six hours later, the fluid containing the eggs are drawn from the ovary with a needle; this is usually performed under light sedation in a short, outpatient procedure with the doctor using ultra-sound to check proceedings.
Introduction: “In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most common and most effective type of assisted reproductive technology (ART) to help women become pregnant” (Medical News Today). In Vitro Fertilization is a process where an egg is fertilized by a sperm outside the body, in the laboratory. Immediately after the embryo is produced, it is then positioned in the uterus. The process has 5 steps and takes about 4-6 weeks. The first step in the process is the ovarian stimulation.
It would perhaps be worth beginning with a description of what in vitro fertilization actually is. The process begins with the woman being prescribed fertility medications in order to stimulate the production of eggs in the ovaries; the eggs are then retrieved by doctors. Then the man produces a sample of his sperm. The crucial step of the process is described by the American Pregnancy Association in the following way: "In a process called insemination, the sperm and eggs are mixed together and stored in a laboratory to encourage fertilization. The eggs are monitored to confirm that fertilization and cell division are taking place.
Step three involves the fertilisation and insemination process. The eggs and sperm are placed together and stored in an environmentally controlled incubator. If the doctor does not think fertilization will occur, the sperm may be directly inserted into the egg (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) (see figure 3). Figure 3: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection The fourth and final step involves the embryo transfer. This process involves the placement of embryos into the women’s uterus.
The process for in vitro fertilization involves stimulating multiple follicles and eggs to develop over time. There are 5 steps in this process stimulation, egg retrieval, fertilizing the eggs in the laboratory, culturing the embryo, and embryo transfer to the uterus (A.D.A.M Board, 2012). In the stimulation process both partners perform screening test. Before injection, the female should have a testing of “ovarian reserve”. The medication is given to help ripen the eggs to start a process called ovulation.
Extended Response Reproductive Technologies – IVF Introduction In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is the procedure whereby a child is conceived outside of the human body. The process is carried out by putting a man’s sperm and a woman’s egg into a test tube for fertilisation. The consequential embryos are then placed into the woman’s uterus for the duration of the rest of the pregnancy. The procedure is carried out over several weeks and involves stimulating the ovaries, collecting the eggs, fertilisation and the embryo transfer (1). The first step in IVF is stimulating the ovaries.
These sperm are determined by washing and spinning the sperm at high speeds. After two hours after the eggs are collected the sperm and eggs are mixed in the hope of fertilization and an embryo to be formed. If the ICSI opinion is being used, a single sperm is injected into each of the eggs at this stage. Embryo transfer: when the embryo has divided into about eight cells, after about two-six days, one or two of the successful embryo will be placed back into the uterus. If more than one is transferred by it could lead to multiply pregnancies, which are more common amongst IVF procedures.
- Medical history, physical examination and other related tests are taken to determine candidacy. - The woman receives hormone injections (Human Menopausal Gonadotropin and recombinant Follicle-Stimulating Hormone) to stimulate development of the ovarian follicles which contain eggs. Frequent blood tests are taken to monitor hormone secretion from the ovary and pituitary gland. - When eggs are ripe, they are retrieved by transvaginal needle aspiration, guided by ultrasound. At the same time, semen samples from the husband (or donor) are obtained.