As a biopsychosocial disease, addiction affects every facet of a person’s life, and is a true form of suffering. It is difficult to elucidate addiction without considering the criteria of two disorders, Substance Dependence and Substance Abuse in American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DSM IV). According to the DSM IV, the characteristics of Substance Abuse include the use of a drug despite significant negative consequences, using the drug in situations that may be dangerous, recurring legal issues, and social maladaptive behavior while intoxicated. Likewise, including the features of Substance Abuse, Substance Dependence becomes more severe and has as its fundamental qualities the physiological and psychological need for the drug. Substance Dependence has two essential aspects, tolerance for the drug [needing larger amounts of the drug t...
Before the DSM-5 was introduced, in May, 2013, by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, different arguments and debates surfaced to the roof related to the definition of addiction and implications. Because the DSM appears to have played with the idea of bringing back the term addiction as a replacement for the term dependence, one of the vast changes to the DSM-5 is the elimination of dependence and the adoption of the new term “substance abuse disorder.” Although the APA and O’Brien (2011) supported the adoption of ‘substance abuse disorder’ as a term because it provided a clear differentiation between the compulsive drug-seeking behaviors of addiction and how people use prescribed drugs naturally as a response to tolerance and withdrawal that affect the central nervous system. However, the DSM-5 has taken a much more vivid position on the topic of abuse vs. dependence. I believe there is always area for enhancement. It appears while the DSM-5 does not state addiction as a term it still goes deeper to the roots into the original indicators linked to the addictiv...
Addiction is a very complex brain disease that has significant behavioral characteristics. Typically, the abuse begins in adolescence when the brain is still developing and is more vulnerable to their effects. Untreated the disease can have many consequences, a chronic and relapsing condition, requiring ongoing professional treatment and management. Other consequences can be car accidents, criminal arrests, domestic violence, and child neglect or abuse. Some of the risk factors for developing the disease include a genetic predisposition, a range of biological psychological and environmental influences. This disease affects 15.9 percent of the population of the United States and older and 31.7 percent engage in risky use. 44.3 percent of referrals to a treatment facility come from within the criminal justice center. The disease results in profound social consequences until addressed.
In early 2014, a sixteen year old boy named Danny Bowman attempted suicide. This attempt was not prompted by bullying or other peer related issues, but by his addiction with taking “selfies”. Danny became increasingly consumed by taking selfies and, as a result, he became more dissatisfied with his personal appearance, leading to his attempted suicide. Social Media addiction is a constant need to be on media like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram or doing something involved with those social media sites. This addiction is fuelled by the increase of cell phones with internet capabilities and the growing accessibility of the internet in general. While I believe this is an addiction which is spreading rapidly amongst the youth of today, others believe it to be normal teen behavior, but modernized alongside today’s technological advancements. Social Media addiction is a growing danger to today’s youth and should not be taken lightly. Throughout this easy, there will be an in-depth exploration of what causes an addiction to Social Media, the dangers of being addicted to social media, and what can be done to help those addicted.
The DSM characterizes substance abuse and substance dependence as two separate social problems. Both are characterized as a significant impairment or distress. Substance abuse is defined as a pattern during a twelve-month period of one or more of the following examples previously stated, while substance dependence is defined as a dependence of three or more. These three or more forms of impairment and distress for substance dependence are further defined as inc...
Addiction is the result of a gradual accretion of neurological tendencies based upon the ingestion of a particular substance or the taking of a particular action. It is cumulative, building over time, and varies in strength from individual to individual based on their own abilities to exercise willpower over themselves and their actions. Some people become addicted more easily than others. In the end, addiction is the result of a series of choices made by the individual. These choices usually have a massive impact upon the life of the person, modifying their friendships, family life, professional life and psychological/spiritual well being. The cumulative aspect of addiction is built up by an individual willfully choosing to either not see the direction they are heading in or to not take action even though they sense themselves following the path of an addict. Some kind of deterioration in their life is bound to take place, and willful ignorance is all that could keep one from noticing that. Likewise, addiction can he helped and cured by an individual choosing to do something different, to adjust their habitual reliance on a specific substance or action for pleasure or escape or whatever quality they are searching for. Only the individual can make that choice, but once they have made that choice other people and institutions can help them.
Scheel, K. (2014). Drug of Abuse - Other Depressants and All-Arounders. In The fundamentals of addiction counseling: A primer (Revised edition, 7th ed., pp. 92-100). Apple Valley, MN: DLC Publishing.
Sacks, S., Chandler, R., & Gonzales, J. (2008). Responding to the challenge of co-occurring disorders: Suggestions for future research. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 34(1), 139-146
Also, in the DSM-IV, the contrast between abuse and dependence based on the concept of abuse as a reasonable or initial step and addiction with greater severe actualization. In practice, the abuse criteria frequently continue quite severe. The amended substance use disorder, a single diagnosis, tends to match the symptoms that patients experience. Additionally, the diagnosis of dependence caused confusion (APA, 2013). Most individuals correlate dependence with
Sarafino, Edward P. "Substance Use and Abuse." Health Psychology: Biopsychosocial Interactions. 7th ed. New York: Wiley, 2012. 182-214. Print.