The creation of those bureaucracies set the precedent that allowed presidents after him to establish and empower new bureaucratic agencies to execute the duties of the executive office. Thomas Jefferson was the third president of the United States and viewed the office of the president to be strictly constructed by the constitution. He, like Washington, believed his power as president derived directly from the constitution and the affection of the people. Although he had a Whig theory he made the Louis... ... middle of paper ... ...y of the treasury furnish two million dollars for military use without the required congressional approval. This precedent allows future presidents to take actions strictly forbidden by the executive branch in times of national emergency without congressional approval.
They feared of an authoritarian dictatorship where the executive branch contained too many powers. As a popular leader, the president tries to motivate and inspire the American people to help accomplish the goals set in his agenda. In doing so, he will gain the support of the people. Reference Page http://www2.worldbook.com/wc/popup?path=features/presidents&page=html/officepres. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executive_branch http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/ www.firstgov.gov/Agencies/Federal/Executive/EOP.shtml
Congress challenges almost everything a president attempts to accomplish. Secondly, the American people do not want concentrated power, and they want to get their point across, so they organize into interest groups. Interest groups can be very powerful, either working for or against the president, so the presidents are careful not to have them as an enemy. In order to achieve political leadership, the president must be able to use his powers of persuasion, that is be able to get his point across in Washington community and be able to "go public", that is be able to effectively communicate with the American public. For a president to achieve these two concepts, persuasion and going public, he must meet a number of other requirements, which will be discussed in following paragraphs.
The president is considered the powerful leader of our nation. However, The president is still required by law and written in the constitution to get a congress approval for war decisions. The constitution is a system of beliefs or laws by which the United States is governed. The constitution has a set of laws or rules that the president or other branches has to follow. However, The constitution and how it’s written have created confusions between the three branches and their powers.
I disagree with Stephen Hess’ contention that modern President’s are woefully miscast in the role of manager of the Executive Branch. The Office of The President in its infancy acted strictly as a Chief Executive, by enforcing Congressional legislation that had been passed into law. As the government continued to develop, The President took on more responsibility acting in the capacity as Chief Administrator; by initiating legislation through a top-down process. Today, the President has developed into a combination of the aforementioned roles. The President manages his White House staff, as well as the nation, in order to attain a less hectic, more structured, effective leadership.
Commanding is only effective in certain situations. Neustadt believes that a persuasive president is a powerful president but in William Howell book Power Without Persuasion, he attacks Neustadt’s point about persuasion in a president. Howell argues that a president does not need to be persuasive in order to be powerful. He believes that a president can become a powerful leader without using persuasion. Howell states that “... effect policy change outside of a bargaining framework" (Howell, pg.
The President was elected to run the country and therefore, has the most power of any individual. However, he cannot make a majority of the decisions alone and must make sure he keeps the approval of others in order to keep his job. The Constitution struck a fairly proper balance between empowering and limiting power of the President of the United States, but limited the power more so than empowering. Although the Constitution claimed the President as the leader of the Unites States, he is not able to single-handedly make decisions that affect our country. He is a large influence in a majority of the decisions in the government of the United States.
Howell envisions that the President must influence the “content of public policy”, in contrast, Neustadt’s argument is based on the exercise of the “Effective” impact by President. Howell, on the other hand, considers that the President is way more powerful on his own than Neustadt thinks. Howell thinks that executive orders, for example, open the path to the President to make important decisions without trying to persuade Congress or the other branches of the government to gain their support. Howell uses President Truman’s decision about federal employees. Howell’s view of unilateral presidential action perfectly fits moments when of crisis when the President, as the Commander in Chief cannot afford the long process of the congressional decision making.
Constitutional Powers of the President The framers of the Constitution of the United States gave the president executive powers that only he (or she) could execute. Some of these powers are the power to grant clemency and pardon individuals, the power to appoint judges and a cabinet, the power to veto congressional bills, and what I believe is the most influential and far-reaching power, the power of executive orders. I will discuss these in this paper, and offer my thoughts. The powers of the President are listed in Article II of the United States Constitution. Alexander Hamilton, in Federalist Paper, Number 70, argued for a strong president, and believed that dynamic and enthusiastic presidential leadership was "essential to the protection of the community against foreign attacks; it is not less essential to the administration of the laws."
Alternatively, Neustadt’s theory suffers from an institutional level analysis. Skrownek (1991) in his book, “The Politics Presidents Make: Leadership from John Adams to Bill Clinton” have suggested that there are clear patterns of contextual circumstances that may explain the variation in presidential leadership. While not denying a role of personal attributes he clearly demonstrated that personal contributions of presidents cannot be truly understood without an appreciation of the institutional contexts in which they operate (Skrownek