Abu al-Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruri

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Al-Biruni or in full Abū al-Rayhān Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Bīrūnī was a Persian-Khwarezmian Muslim scholar and polymath. He was born in 973 and his contributions to science made him one of the greatest Muslim scientists and astronomers. He was well versed in physics, mathematics, geography, history, ethnography, anthropology and astronomy. During his time of becoming a great polymath, he survived some unusual political changes such as change of six princes. There is not enough information about his early life available but from what it is known; khwarezm was located beyond “Amu Darya” river, a river that was called Oxus River at those times. Al-Biruni’s educator, Khwarezm-Shah was a member of the parliament or in better words dynasty that controlled and ruled the area. The dynasty that al-Biruni’s educator was a prince of was called the Banu Iraq. His real name was Abu Nasr Mansur and there are not any clear sources and reasoning of what happened to him during the civil war of the time. The events at that time went in a way that al-Biruni himself described them as: “After I had barely settled down for a few years, I was permitted by the Lord of Time to go back home, but I was compelled to participate in worldly affairs, which excited the envy of fools, but which made the wise pity me.” [1]

Al-Biruni was a great Muslim scientist in his era and his books and theories are still subjects of study in higher level educations, i.e. Masters and PhD. His mathematical and physics theories and findings caused great discoveries to clarify questions about life, stars and in general astronomy. He plays an important role in science, especially astronomy. His scientific explorations and theories made him one of the retest scientists ...

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... Waardenburg, 27.

[8] George Saliba, "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN iii. Mathematics and Astronomy" in Encyclopaedia Iranica

[9] Al-Biruni 1017, The Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology, translated by R. Ramsey Wright.1934.

[10] Burckhardt. 1977. Titus, Mystical Astrology According to ibn Arabi

[11] Campion, Nicholas .1982. An Introduction to the History of Astrology

[12] Nasr, S.H. 1978. Islamic Cosmological Doctrines

[13] David Plant .1994. Al-Biruni and Arabic Astrology, text available at:

[14] Christopher Warnock. 2012. Renaissance Astrology: Islamic Astrology and Astronomy of Al-Biruni, text available at:

[15] Dr. Conor Burns, (Winter2014), CHST787 Course-pack, reading #16 (excert from the book of the elements and arts of astrology by al-Biruni)
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