Most Patients treated with only Chemotherapy will reach remission at some point but eventually will die. However the development of new treatment where chemotherapy or radiotherapy are given in addition to Monoclonal Antibodies have a higher rate of success in defeating the cancer all together. Monoclonal Antibodies are laboratory engineered molecules that are engineered to attach to a specific protein that is found only in B-cell. The immune system task is to fight invaders, however it does not always recognize the cancer as a harmful invader and does not attack it. The Monoclonal Antibody are directed to attach to a specific part of the cancer, marking the cancer cell as harmful and making it easy for the immune system to identify it and destroy it.
In addition, cancerous cell also creates their own blood vessels for oxygen and nutrients which is essential for the growth of the cell and is also known as angiogenesis. There are various ways of treating this, one is through localised treatment; surgery where you work on the cancerous areas of the organ. Another localised treatment is radiotherapy which beams gamma rays or x-rays used for the cancer treatment (1). Chemotherapy is also a conventional treatment of cancer; this is a systemic type of treatment this means that it goes all around the body, and has certain drugs which stop the process of cancer cells from developing. For example the cyclophosphamide drug binds the DNA during replication of the DNA.
Targeted therapy is the use of drugs that target the specific genetic changes in the cells that cause cancer. The last treatment option is hormone therapy. Hormone therapy is often used to reduce the threat of the cancer returning and coming back again. It can also be used to treat returning cancer that has come back after treatment. Breast cancer is a very deadly disease and deserves full effort into researching more and finding new, and improved ways of curing the disease.
Certain conditions in the body can also promote the growth of cancer cells. One of these is a deficiency of natural killer (NK) cells, which are able to kill cancer cells by creating a pore in the cell membrane with perforin and releasing granzymes into the cell. Low levels of perforin allow for tumor growth 1. Chronic inflammation can also ... ... middle of paper ... ...gens are exogenous (outside the cell) and will be presented to helper T cells to initiate an immune response. This can trigger cytotoxic T cells to kill cancer cells with the same antigen – often HPV viral proteins in cervical cancer.
Cancer cells within the tumor will then use the newly formed blood vessels as a port to metastasize to other localities. Including the drugs for colon cancer, a growing number of anticancer agents have been shown to inhibit hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) gene activity. For many of these, the mechanism of action has been established and involves a reduction in HIF-1 mRNA or protein levels by suppressing the HIF gene expression (Semenza, 2007). Hypoxia is the principal trigger to stimulate VEGF gene transcription and subsequently to angiogenesis. VEGF is responsible triggering the various steps in the angiogenesis cascade such as proliferation, migration and cell survival.
A. Background: Breast cancer has now become a disease which, in most cases, is easily treatable if detected early or non-aggressive. However, the major cause of death for patients with breast cancer is metastasis of tumor cells from the primary tumor to secondary sites throughout the body. Determining the hallmarks to differentiate aggressive tumors versus non-aggressive tumors will not only in how clinicians choose to initially treat the patients, but also could potentially be used as therapeutic targets to specifically target metastatic tumor cells. Determining the factors involved in allowing circulating tumor cells to adhere to each other and to blood vessel walls could lead to improved treatment options for patients with metastatic breast cancer.
Cancer is caused by carcinogens. At present, hundreds of chemicals are known to induce cancer. Normally, the body’s cells divide in an orderly way, allowing the body to grow and to heal after injury. Damage or mutations that occur to the proto-oncogenes (POG) and tumour suppresser Genes (TSG) in the genetic material (DNA and RNA) by these carcinogens bring about Cancer, which causes cells to have less control of cell division and differentiation. POGs lead to changed cells or transformed cells and cause excessive cell division.
It has been shown that platelets, which are transient cells in BM microenvironment, are important for metastasis of a variety of solid tumors (Figure 1). Platelets bind circulating tumor cells, protecting them against anoikis (a type of programmed cell death occurring due to detachment of the cell from surrounding ECM) as well as against the innate immune system (2, 56, 57). Platelet-derived TGF-β and direct contact between platelets and tumor cells synergistically activate TGF-β/Smad and NF-κB pathways, leading to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased invasion and metastasis (58). In addition, during platelet aggregation by breast cancer cells, platelet-derived lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) induces the release of IL-6 and IL-8 from breast cancer cells, which eventually lead to osteoclastic activation and bone resorption (59). Megakaryocyte ploidy is significantly higher in patients with metastatic disease.
Cancer could be described as the disease that sends cells out of control, rapidly multiplying the cells, until it harms the body. Chemotherapy is an effective drug treatment intended to treat individuals with various forms of cancer. Generally, this type of treatment is nonspecific, and non-molecular that uses chemical agents to break down all dividing cells. Chemotherapy, or chemo for short, destroys cancer cells, and can also cease the reproduction or spreading of these cells. Despite having apparent benefits, this type of treatment comes at a cost, presenting several disadvantages and side effects.
Systemic chemotherapy claims to have high effective against breast cancer, but it can cause serious side effects in the patients (12, 13). Unlike chemotherapy, hormonal treatment (one of biological targeted therapy) has fewer side effects, but the tumors need to express hormonal receptors in their cells (8, 14). Up to date, there are two kinds of hormonal treatment for breast cancer; anti-estrogen receptor drug (eg. Tamoxifen) (15-17) and aromatase inhibitors (eg. Letrozole) (10, 18, 19).