This assignment will also include criticisms of both theories as well. Cognitive is defined as a mental process; it refers to everything going on in your mind including your thought processes and the way you are thinking and feeling. Behaviour refers to everything that you may do; this includes any action that you may present or act out, this can also be an indirect action that is caused by other underlying behaviours. Therapy is a systematic approach to try and resolve a problem, illness, actions, irregular thought patterns or anything that may be a disturbance that distracts you from your everyday functioning. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a dynamic mode of holistic intervention that seeks to change thought processes that are linked with emotions through a goal-orientated process (Freeman and Ronen, 2007).
Postmodern counseling approaches have begun to challenge the paradigms of modernistic counseling theories. Modern theories emphasize the use of empirically validated treatment approaches to psychotherapy. The modernistic therapy perspective endorses the premise that psychological problems are the result of disturbances in cognitive processes. The focus of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is on helping clients to examine and restructure their core beliefs in order to reorganize one’s behavior. Postmodern approaches to therapy, however, stress the importance of context in people’s social and interpersonal world.
Cognitive theory can be defined as “ an activating event produces a belief or thought-that produces an emotion or action”(p172). The principle of cognitive theory is that cognition is our conscious mental activity this includes all our beliefs, assumptions, and ideas. Cognition is how we process information. When you have an invalid or faulted cognition it causes distress in one’s life, which may lead to an individual seeking cognitive therapy. The assumptions for cognitive theory are that cognitive interventions focus on assessing the rationality of one’s thought, the conclusions they then reach about one’s self, and the environment around them.
However, estimation of threats and decision-making are outcomes of human thinking. Analysts and policymakers create mental models, or short cuts to manage complex, changing environments. In other words, to make sense of ambiguous or uncertain situations, humans form cognitive biases. Informed because of personal experience, education, and specifically applied to intelligence analysis, Davis (2008) also adds, biases formed by factors such as past reporting and organizational norms (Davis 2008, 158-160). Former Central Intelligence Analyst Jones (1998) defines biases as, “an unconscious belief that conditions, governs, and compels our behavior” (Jones 1998, 22).
What is CBT? Modern CBT has been influenced by two major therapeutic approaches: firstly, ‘Behaviour Therapy’ as developed by Wolpe and others in 1950s and 1960s; and secondly, ‘Cognitive Therapy’ which was developed by A.T. Beck in the 1960s. As defined by Emery & Tracy (1987), CBT is “a series of strategies that relieve psychological suffering by correcting distorted and maladaptive thinking. The therapy is based on a theory of psychopathology that recognises the reciprocal interrelationship among the cognitive, behavioural, somatic and emotional systems”. Although CBT is often referred to as a unitary treatment, it is actually a diverse collection of complex and subtle interventions that must each be mastered and understood from the social learning perspective (Reinecke, Dattilio, & Freeman, 2003).
I like that this approach focuses on challenging and changing the client’s cognitive distortions, core beliefs, automatic thoughts, and schemas. Another positive aspect is that this approach focuses on the cognitive triad, which consists of how one views the self, the world, and the future (Corey, 2009). Furthermore, CBT places responsibility on the individual to take an active role and make the changes to their thoughts and behaviors, both in and out of the therapy sessions (Corey, 2009). In order to bring about change, the client needs to understand that the primary source of difficulty lies in their belief system and how they perceive events (Kellogg & Young, 2008). CBT has manualized treatment techniques, is short-term, and teaches the client skills to change their thoughts or beliefs in the future (Kellogg &Young, 2008).
Cognitive behavioral therapy commonly known as CBT is a systematic process by which we learn to change our negative thoughts into more positive ones. CBT is a combination of two types of therapy, Cognitive Therapy and Behavioral Therapy. Cognition is our thoughts, so cognitive behavioral therapy combines working with our thought process and changing our behavior at the same time. Cognitive behavioral therapists believe that our behavior and our feelings are influenced by the way we think; also our mood is affected by our behavior and thought process. So CBT tries to tackle our thoughts, feelings and behavior.
One of the qualities of REBT is that it helps clients see how their musings, sentiments and practices are connected by utilizing the ABC framework (Psychology.jrank.org, 2014.) "A" being the Activating event and/or objective situation, "B" being Beliefs and "C" being the Consequence (McLeod, 2014.) The beliefs (B) of the activating event (A) completely affects the consequence (C) and thus influences the client's feelings, practices and different contemplations. Subsequently if one circumstance happens to both individual A and individual B, they most likely would not respond the same with respect to the same circumstance (Basic-counseling-skills.com, 2014.) It likewise empowers an individual to break down their objectives and difficulties while spurring them to focus on, I quote “ The irrational belief system and principles they were following to try to achieve their goals” and “ The rational belief system and principles they could follow to increase the likelihood of achieving their goals” (Thestrengthsfoundation.org, 2014.)
There are several principles outlined within the framework of CBT: thinking, cognitions and behavioral change. The concept of thinking is commonly confused with one’s emotions; in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, one must first identify and differentiate their feelings from their thoughts. The feelings that are identified and shared may instead be thoughts and beliefs that are expressed in an emotional statement. Cognitions affect behavior and behavioral responses come from the process of rewarding or unrewarding consequences, indicating that cognitions can be changed and monitored. Lastly, behavioral change allows clients to focus on their misconceptions which can result in the realization that change may be
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy developed from Behaviorism Theory—a theory that individuals are programmed to respond to stimuli in particular patterns which are both adjustable and often predictable (Maguire 2008). Cognitive Behavioral Theory and Behaviorism Theory, and how it relates to understanding and treating underlying problems, is the logic that a client’s intelligence is an evolutionary, biological adaptation to their environment and that reaction to stimulation shapes behavioral learning (Overview of Theories of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 2008). This means, by utilizing CBT and its underlying theory, clients can successfully learn adaptive behaviors (positive thoughts and better behavioral choices) in reaction to previously problem-inducing environments or