It is characterized by high level viremia and initial innate defences (release of acute phase proteins, pro inflammatory cytokines, activation of natural killer cells) which is not sufficient to eradicate the virus. (1,3) Subsequent progression into early stage describes the period from seroconversion through to viral load set point. (3) Dendritic cell mediated cytotoxic T cell response is partially responsible for this reduction in viral RNA, which is an important prognostic marker for AIDS progression. (1,4) An earlier study (5) reported infection, depletion and dysfunction in mDCs and pDCs in advanced stages of HIV -1 infection. It was yet to be clearly elucidated if these changes occurred earlier on in HIV-1 infection or were an end outcome from long term viral exposure.
HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Resistance Abstract HIV is a retrovirus that will constantly attack human’s immune system once an individual is infected and will eventually develop to AIDS, often a deadly sexually transmitted disease. Currently, there are different kinds of antiretroviral treatments available for patients who are tested to be HIV positive as well as patients with AIDS. HIV can easily develop resistance to its treatment through mutation each generation, which leads to ineffectiveness in treatment. The only way to continue to fight off HIV is to change treatment that is still available. Patients have to cooperate with experienced doctors by adhering to their professional recommendations, while doctors are responsible for closely monitoring the patient’s conditions through test results and their body’s response to treatment, as well as helping them to live healthily without serious damage to their immune system over a long period of time.
The Symptoms of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus has left a deep imprint on citizens affected today. The first recognition of AIDS occurred in the 1980’s and informed Americans to be more careful of their sexually activity. Some symptoms were similar to the common cold but were taken seriously after it lead to deaths. People assumed that HIV was spread by sitting on toilet seats or even hugging. The truth was that HIV couldn’t be spread as easily as everyone thought.
In most cases the immune systems cells can combat with viruses such as the flu. However, research has yet to uncover the reason this is not true with HIV. A virus reproduces by taking over a cell, that is exactly what HIV does. HIV attacks and invades the T-cells and CD4 cells, cells vital to the immune system, using them to multiply itself and then destroy the host cell. What differs HIV from AIDS is once HIV destroys many of the CD4 cells the infection progresses to a point of no return, AIDS.
HIV is a powerful and clever virus. WebMD reported that this infectious virus destroys your immune system which impedes with your body’s ability to get rid of it; the virus targets the specific cells that are trying to destroy it (2013). As soon as the virus enters the bloodstream, HIV begins doing its job to survive and resist anything against it by depending on other cells to increase their population, WebMD stated (2013). HIV uses the immune system defenders called CD4 T-cells’ DNA to persistently replicate the virus and terminates the CD4 T-cells afterwards, WebMD specified (2013). The virus uses an enzyme called reverse... ... middle of paper ... ...rticles.latimes.com/2013/oct/23/science/la-sci-sn-baby-cured-of-hiv-report-20131023 McNeil Jr. D. G. (2012, July 3).
Chapter 1-- Introduction to HIV/AIDS. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64928/ Weinstein, C. (2010). Young people and hiv/aids. Retrieved from http://www.amfar.org/ Wohl, D. (2010). Aging and hiv.
In 1987, researchers formed together and named it the human immunodeficiency virus. This virus takes over the CD4 cells in the immune system and duplicates itself. Although the damage that HIV will produce is extensive, it starts off slowly and then ultimately destroys the immune system. The virus will slowly tear down the body, making it very weak. When the immune system is weak it is more susceptible to opportunistic infections.
So where did this syndrome and virus originate and how does it come to be you ask? Well scientist believe that HIV in fact may have come from Western Africa by means... ... middle of paper ... ...so that you can reduce your risk of being infected or spreading if you are already infected. Simply not having sex is the best way to not be infected. Limiting your partners, using a condom, being faithful are all ways to reduce your risk as well ("HIV Prevention," 2013). If have been diagnosed with HIV and want to keep you partner safe there are steps you can take to insure your partners’ health.
HIV works in an unusual way because it uses the immune system to its advantage. Viruses cannot l... ... middle of paper ... ...e before its toxicity and side effects are fully understood" (Stine 337). However, many people with AIDS are willing to take this risk with the hope that the drug may prove effective. In conclusion, AIDS is an incurable disease with few treatments, caused by HIV, transmitted by way of bodily fluids. AIDS is mainly transmitted through sex and sexual activities, and by sharing hypodermic drug needles.
When this happens, HIV infection leads to AIDS (www.cdc.gov). Like many other chronic illnesses, HIV/AIDS consist of stages. HIV disease has a well-documented progression. Untreated, HIV is almost universally fatal because it eventually overwhelms the immune system—resulting in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV treatment helps people at all stages of the disease, and treatment can slow or prevent progression from one stage to the next (www.cdc.gov).