The purpose of this research was to describe and understand Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the most effective treatment options that are available today. ADHD is a mental health disorder that affects 3-9% of the population in ways that, if left untreated, can wreak havoc on the mind of the sufferer. It makes concentration difficult, large tasks seem insurmountable, and causes impulsive and hyperactive tendencies. Fortunately, research and experiments have led to new and effective treatments to help those who suffer from this disorder (Dupaul 8). This research examined journal articles and internet sources on the topic to help unlock the complexities of the disorder through scientific research. It also was a way to separate the myths of the disorder from the truths, while discovering the causes, diagnosis methods, and best treatment alternatives to battle this prevalent disorder.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about one-half of 1.6 million elementary school-aged children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have also been diagnosed with a learning disability (LD) (Brown University Child and Adolescence Behavior Letter, 2001). The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (1997) stated that ADHD affects 3 to 5 percent of all children, and boys are three times more likely to be affected by the disorder than girls. The cause of ADHD is unknown, and the disorder and its symptoms are chronic and pervasive (www.asha.org). In the Fourth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ADHD is categorized into three subtypes which are ADHD Predominantly Inattention Type, ADHD Predominantly Hyperactivity-Impulsive Type, and ADHD Combined Type.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most researched psychiatric disease, but it is a disease we cannot confidently explain what the true cause is. “In children, ADHD has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric condition worldwide.” (Bailey,1) According to a news report prepared by USA Today over the past five years, the use of ADHD medications have increased 40% totaling 39.5 million individual prescriptions ("New findings," 2009). That goes to show a huge increase in prescriptions and the disease being diagnosed. Many people argue that ADHD is part of normal childhood and that the disease is fictional. While the question regarding the validity of ADHD is surrounded by controversy, scientific and psychiatric associations provide evidence that support its legitimacy.
ADHD is broken into three subtypes. The first is those who are impulsive and hyperactive. The second type is made up from those who are inattentive only. The third group is those who display all of these symptoms combined. In the United States, 3-5% of children show signs of this disorder. It has also been shown that the disorder is more dominant in boys. Many children with ADHD do not outgrow this disorder and carry it on into their adult lives. Various studies have shown that two-thirds of children with ADHD still have the disorder in their 20’s making it is a problem which affects children and adults alike.
This paper will attempt to describe Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The different causative factors, as well as the diagnosis of this disorder will also be described. Finally, the different treatments that are available for ADHD will be discussed.
ADHD is a behavioral mental illness that is characterized by “distractibility, inattentiveness, restlessness, and impulsivity”. Yet everyone who suffers from ADHD does not suffer all the same symptoms. This difference in symptoms resulted in the creation of three different types of ADHD. One type of ADHD is Inattentive ADHD. As the name implies people with this version of ADHD suffer from an inability to focus when attempting to complete tasks, but they do not suffer from hyperactivity or impulsive decision making. People suffering from this form of ADHD have difficulties focusing on simple tasks such as “listening to a lecture, completing an assignment, following or carrying on a conversation, or reading social cues”1. Their constant distractibility often “causes problems with short-term memory, organization, and time management”1. Yet people with Inattentive ADHD can go into a state of hyperfocus when they’re participating in an activity that they enjoy. When they go into this hyperfocus state, they become unaware of the world beyond that activity including the passing of time or movement around them. A second form of ADHD is Hyperactive/Impulsive ADHD. This form of the disease is characterized by restlessness, excessive talking, impulsivity and extreme im...
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable, neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity (del Campo et al, 2011). The disorder begins in early childhood and persists into adolescence, and for 70% it continues on to adulthood (Sharma & Couture, 2014). Those who suffer ADHD experience challenges, particularly during their development. Impulsivity and inattention often result in lower performance in school, and greater incidents of motor accidents and¬ risky behaviour. Additionally, individuals with ADHD have higher rates of one or more comorbidities including major depression and anxiety disorders (Sharma & Couture).
“Some say that this explosion of childhood ADHD is indicative of what’s wrong with our society and education system. They blame parents and an educator for choosing quick fixes for what they say is a behavioral problem, not a brain-based disorder.”
For over two-thousand years philosophers like Hippocrates have studied behaviors characteristic of the psychiatric disorder known today as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, “ADHD” (Peterson, 2007, p. 10). It is defined by Myers (2010) as “a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity” (p. 595). ADHD is predominately seen in boys. Possible reasons for developing this disorder have been linked to abnormalities in the development of the brain, as well as genetic and environmental factors. Whatever the cause may be ADHD results in learning difficulties, medications with side effects, substance abuse, crime, and troubled relationships.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is very commonly known. Today, ADHD is one of the most common mental disorders among children. The NIMH (The national institute of mental health) predicts that it affecting 3 to 5 percent of all children(AACAP), with an approximate amount of 30% to 65% of these children experiencing persistence of symptoms into adolescence and adulthood (AACAP).There are three types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type, Predominantly Inattentive Type, and Combination Type(ehow.com). The symptoms of ADHD can be classified into three main categories; hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. These behaviors can interfere with ADHD sufferers’ ability to focus deliberately on organizing and completing a specific task that they may not enjoy. A case of this kind of behavior is recognized in a report written by the National Institute of Mental Health where one of the subjects under study was unable to pass schooling examinations due to her inattentive behavior (clinicaltrials.gov) These kinds of behaviors can damage the person's relationships with others in addition to disrupting their daily life, consuming energy, and diminishing self-esteem, depending on severity of their symptoms (adhd.com). In this paper, the multiple factors of how ADHD affects, and is handled, of those who undergo this disorder, are shown.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, also referred to as ADHD for short, is a hereditary disease confirmed to be on the 16th chromosome. The most common cause for ADHD is through heredity, children whose parents were diagnosed with ADHD have a 25% chance of inheriting the disease from the parents. Another way of receiving ADHD is from an exposure to toxic substances such as tobacco products or alcohol during pregnancy give the child learning and behavior problems. Not only are substances a cause but even high lead exposure within the first three years of birth can cause symptoms of ADHD such as hyperactivity develop in a child. In some cases injuries to the brain from trauma, brain tumors and stroke can lead to a diagnoses of ADHD. However claims such as diet, vestibular dysfunction, over use of television and bad parenting have not yet been proven to be leading causes of ADHD.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), once called hyperkinesis or minimal brain dysfunction, is one of the most common mental disorders among children. (Elia, Ambrosini, Rapoport, 1999) It affects 3 to 5 percent of all children, with approximately 60% to 80% of these children experiencing persistence of symptoms into adolescence and adulthood, causing a lifetime of frustrated dreams and emotional pain. There are two types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an inattentive type and a combined type. The symptoms of ADHD can be classified into three categories: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This behaviour stops ADHD sufferers from focussing deliberately on organising and completing a specific task that they may not enjoy, learning new skills or information is proved to be impossible. An example of such behaviour is recognised by the report written by the National Institute of Mental Health where one of the subjects under study was unable to pass schooling examinations due to her inattentive behaviour. Such behaviour can damage the person's relationships with others in addition to disrupting their daily life, consuming energy, and diminishing self-esteem. (National Institute of Mental Health 1999) There are also secondary symptoms which are associated with ADHD, such as learning disorders, anxiety, depression and other mood disorders, tic disorders, and conduct disorders. (Spencer, Biederman, and Wilens 1999 in Monastra V, Monastra D, George, 2002)
First, there are two different types of ADHD. An individual can be diagnosed with hyperactivity or impulsivity. Those with hyperactivity cannot sit still, talk excessively, and always act as if they are “on the go (intuniv, 2013). If diagnosed with impulsivity symptoms are blurting out words, have a hard time waiting on others and interrupt others regularly. These symptoms make you think of an undisciplined child and are not ones that will make you think of a disease. This disorder can go undetected for quite some time and that can cause unnecessary stress to an individual’s everyday life.