There are several warning signs which can indicate the possibility that a child may be affected by the disorder. These include difficulties adhering to instructions, talking a lot, disorganization, leaving homework or other chores unfinished, and having problems paying attention to details or responding (NINDS Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Information Page, 2011). The fact that the disorder is considerably prevalent and costly has prompted research efforts in finding treatment and management approaches for ADHD. The research into this mental illness has been largely inspired by findings regarding its physiological basis which has paved way for discovering treatment approaches. It is imperative for those taking care of children affected with ADHD to understand the diagnosis, prognosis and phenomenology of ADHD so as to provide quality care for the affected (Sefa, 2007).
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is usually when a child or an adult isn’t able to focus, is overactive, not able control behavior, or a combination of all of these. ADHD is a neurobehavioral disorder and to be diagnosed the person must considered to be out of the normal range for a person's age and development. There’s three types of ADHD Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type, Predominantly Inattentive Type, and Combination Type. The first type, behavior is determined by hyperactivity and impulsivity, not inattentiveness. Usually doctors can tell this specific type through symptoms like trouble playing quietly, talking excessively or out of turn, can’t sit neither stand still, etc.
ADHD is defined as a “persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity— unwary that is more frequently displayed and more severe than is typically detected in individuals at a similar level of development” (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000, p. 85). Symptoms must occur at two settings to be diagnosed as ADHD. It typically occurs at school and home, but it could happen anywhere else as well. These indicators become an obstacle on how children perform or work on a social basis and educationally. According to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, hyperactivity includes impatience, being restless, and jittery.
They say it possible that boys have more of a chance genetically in getting this disorder. There are a large number of people that are affected. Psychiatrists say ADHD arises as a developmental failure in the brain circuitry that underlies inhibition and self control. If this is what happens, that is what impairs the brain functions for maintaining attention. That is why children my have trouble paying attention.
Unfortunately, time is of the essence and there is a sense of rush in order to rectify the increasing bad behavior. For instance, the above scenario is so common, that any child who fails to pay attention or seems overly active might be deemed as suffering from ADHD. When, in essence, the child could very well be exhibiting typical childhood behavior that could be channeled through more engaging activities. Interestingly, the symptoms of ADHD are just as varied as the causes of ADHD. Even so, some parents may end up feeling that their parenting skills are not on par with other parents of well-behaved children.
A few problems that can arise from having comorbid conditions are that the child can obtain cognitive difficulties and developmental delays. Before doctors really look into the child having comorbid conditions, they will think that the child is suffering from autism disorder (McDonell & McClellan). In children with EOS, substance abuse can become a massive problem as they get older. One of the biggest abuses would be nicotine (NIMH, 2007). A child with schizophrenia definitely leads a completely different life then a child without this disorder.
More recent studies have found that the outer layer of the brain showed overall maturation delays, and some abnormal growth patterns in the brain structure that is involves proper communication (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). The key behaviors of ADHD are impulsivity, inattention, and hyperactivity. Other symptoms of ADHD include difficulty staying focused on a specific task, paying attention to the task at hand, difficulty controlling behavior and impulses, and hyperactivity. These symptoms can make it very difficult for a child or adult with ADHD to succeed in school, get along with others, or finish tasks at home or in the workplace (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). It is normal for a child to be hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive at times, but for children with ADHD, it is much more severe and it occurs more often than the average child.
A few examples of hyperactivity are talking excessively, fidgeting with hands/feet and squirming in seat, and leaving seat when remaining in seat is expected. On the outside perspective you can tell if someone has ADHD because they have emotional instability, low self-esteem and get frequently frustrated with oneself. According to (Asherson, 2012), not only des ADHD express itself with the above features, it also causes neurological conditions such as: sleep disorders, Tourette’s syndrome, epilepsy and general learning difficulties. ADHD can have a developmental impact on one’s education. As a preschooler through school age students with ADHD will experience behavioral disturbance, poor social interaction with peers, and academic impairment.
In the article entitled, “An investigation of first-order false belief understanding of children with congenital profound visual impairment,” a detailed look at the development of ToM was performed. Theory of mind (ToM) is defined “as the ability to impute mental states to others and to interpret and predict behavior in terms of those mental states” (Green 1). In order to examine ToM, the study performed a series of false belief tests. False belief can also be explained as misunderstanding which connected to false reasoning. In the case of the children in this study, the false belief would be if they can correctly identify how another person would respond to a specific task, if that person had limited information that the children were previously made privy too.
Also iconic memory considers being the primary stage of memory and consisting of visible persistence and informational persistence. There is no clear link to what parts of the memory of children with ADHD affected, but there is a strong linkage between iconic memory and ADHDs’ inability to gain attention. The study tested the Iconic memory in children with ADHD and compares to normal children without ADHD to determine if the children with ADHD have a working iconic memory or not. Additionally, comparing the results would help in future studies to understand whether the iconic memory is the primary reason of the children with ADHD inability to gain attention, and this could be a gateway to improve treatment for ADHD if indeed the iconic memory is a factor of inattention of children with ADHD. Methods The subject of the study were children ages 6-9 years old selected from 1st and 2nd grades of educational district of Yazd, southeast Iran.