It is a negotiated order. Deviance violates some groups assumptions about reality (social order). It violates expectations. The definition of deviance defines the threat and allows for containment and control of the threat. The definition of deviance preserv... ... middle of paper ... ...one is given the label of a deviant in order to understand deviance itself.
Deviance Theory Analysis - Identify Deviance for situations and explain Within any given society, individuals are expected to behave and or conduct themselves in a given acceptable manner. However, there are instances when particular individuals act contrary to the set standards and violate the cultural norms. Such acts may include acts of crime, theft, defiance, breaking of rules, and truancy just to mention a few. Deviance could thus be viewed as the intentional or accidental violation of the particular behavioral aspects and ways that people are expected to act within a society (Hardy). When an individual breaks the societal rules of conduct, they are said to be involved in deviant behaviors.
Deviance; when people hear the term, usually constitutes images of criminal behaviour and other such negative notions. However, deviance, defined in Elements of Sociology, simply means to “stray from the norm or the usual” (Steckley and Letts 2013:143). But what are norms, who sets them and how does one stray away with it? While there are numerous amounts of theory in regards to social deviance, I have chosen a select few under the concept of social constructionism. Although deviance is not necessarily wrong in itself, using social constructionism, labelling theory, and primary deviance, demonstrates the adverse effects within an individual once internalized with an image as a deviant.
This is done primarily to control the conduct of others, especially the potentially negative responsive treatment towards the stigmatized person. Linking behaviour to personal values and belief systems, Mills (1940) adds to this discussion by claiming that motives are the terms used by social actors, to organize and guide their conduct. The actor and the audience, as a means to bring order to a situation, justify and confirm behaviour and mediate the reactions of others using the vocabulary of motives. Thus, motiv... ... middle of paper ... ...ng. And as suggested by Mills’ (1940) “Rather than interpreting actions and language as external manifestations of subjective and deeper lying elements in individuals, the research task is the locating of particular types of action within typal frames of normative actions and socially situated clusters of motive” (p. 913).
Social control theories focus primarily on external factors and the processes by which rules become effective. Followers of this theory believe that deviance and crime occur because of inadequate constraints. This theory also examines the lack of control a person has in relation to society and explains how deviant behavior occurs in proportion to the strength of one’s social bonding. For the most part, social control theory assumes a shared value or belief in social norms. Therefore, even those who break laws or violate social norms, share the general belief that those rules should be followed (Cartwright, 2013).
Yet, MacDonald and Leary (2005) reflected that social pain of exclusion are functional in responding to danger and guiding social groups from threats (p.223). Symbolic Interactionism by other scholars Blumer (1986) alleged that racial and ethnic exclusion is formed via interactions between the dominant groups. However, dominants would not hold racial and ethnic views without interactions. So, these interactions conduce to an imagery of the subordinates which allows the dominants to support its view of the subordinates, thus maintain the status quo.
Finally, a discussion of the individual and societal influences that lead to deviance from group norms will demonstrate the utility of social psychology in the real world. Although the prospective for evil and good exist in the world and the situation the individual experiences can activate either domain, social psychology can facilitate a better understanding of those situation and alleviate the potential for evil. Conformity and Obedience Conforming is the act of bending to perceived group pressure and mimicking the actions or adopting the beliefs of others bringing the individual’s behavior within the constructs of a societal standard including law, etiquette, or fashion (Brownlee, 2004). Conformity can be an automatic response to situational norms. When unsure of their own ability to define “normal” accurately an individual will observe and take cues from those who appear confident (Franzoi, 2008).
Constructionist is a theory of finding deviant behavior that says deviant behavior is not inherently the same and is defined by the social context. This theory places the cause of deviant behavior on society and the definition of “normal” as to why select behaviors are deemed deviant. The other school of thought is the Positivist
However, labelling theorists stress the point of seeing deviance from the viewpoint of the deviant individual. They claim that when a person becomes known as a deviant, and is ascribed deviant behaviour patterns, it is as much, if not more, to do with the way they have been stigmatized, then the deviant act they are said to have committed. In addition, Howard S. Becker (1963), one of the earlier interaction theorists, claimed that, "social groups create deviance by making the rules whose infraction constitute deviance, and by applying those rules to particular people and labelling them as outsiders". Furthermore, the labelling theoretical approach to deviance concentrates on the social reaction to deviance committed by individuals, as well as, the interaction processes leading up to the labelling. INFLUENCES Labelling theory was significantly influenced by the Chicago School and Symbolic Interactionism.
The negative affect is that it creates permanence where a potentially temporary condition exists. James Kelman's story, posits that although social constructs are created to keep a group in place, it is the belief in the construct that perpetuates the cycle of oppression, propagates the lie and brings it to reality. Kelman's character is a slave to the outside forces. It pushes him in a direction he does not want to go. There are choices.