A-Level Theory and Methods Revision

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A-Level Theory and Methods Revision 1. Sociological Analysis - focus here is on social structures or systems sometimes phrased a MACRO or big worldview. Structuralist: - Positivist methodology aimed at being objective + uncovering causal laws. Based on EMPIRICISM i.e. hard data, which proves the theory true. Reliable - Replicable - Based on influence of external forces. Functionalist Marxist Weber as a conflict? Structuralist - mainly in topic stratification à Giddens' Structuration Theory 1979 - Post Modernism à Radical ¯ of +ism, a diverse range of perspectives should be accepted. 2. Individual In Society - focus on the methods, meanings, beliefs + motives of the person * MICRO approach i.e. the reality of 1 person in the day-to-day situation = critical. Interpretivist - How social actors actively make their own social reality - diff to inanimate objects in natural sciences i.e. "Thinking feeling reflexive beings" Methodology is small scale yet in detail there4 high in validity. Backed up by QUALITATIVE DATA i.e. rich in description of words. Weber's PHENOMENOLOGY ETHNOMETHODOLOGY Symbolic S.A.T. from philosophy charting Practical experiments to Interactionist base of meaning. show where commonsense "How you know what you know" meaning lies FUNCTIONalist ============= à Every part of society or social institution has a function or distinct role in contributing to the well-being + maintenance of society e.g. FAMILY - primary socialisation. Education - Role allocation, important core values + individual incentives to work. KEY PHRASES - "Everything works together for the good of the whole". "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts" - ORGANIC ANALOGY. à Reifying an abstract concept into concrete properties, in this case the human body, where each organ has a distinct function, BUT they work in tandem with each other. The system is self-righting i.e. maintains a sense of balance + equilibrium (HOMEOSTASIS) e.g. when body temp you begin to sweat Funct's believe the problem in the soc. sys = S.P.F.'s à Education
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