1.Explain the three dominant sociological theories discussed in class. How do they impact our understanding/explanation of social phenomena? Structural-Functional Theory is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability (Macionis 16). In laments terms the structural functional theory is the idea that systems in society work together as a body, the idea that customs, traditions, and institutions shape society. This theory is outlined by social structure, social functions, and social dysfunction.
, Marxists: who makes the rules, and who benefits from their enforcement?, and Interactionist: How did this person become processed (labeled) as a deviant? Sociology asserts that deviance is problematic, yet essential and intrinsic to any conception of Social Order. It is problematic because it disrupts but is essential because it defines the confines of our shared reality. It is intrinsic to a conception of order in that defining what is real and expected, defining what is acceptable, and defining who we are always is done in opposition to what is unreal, unexpected, or unacceptable. Sociologically, deviance can be construed as a label used to maintain the power, control, and position of a dominant group.
The function of ideology using Marx's perspective would be that continual reproduction of the means of production. This, in turn, ensures the continuous dominance of the ruling class. Weber's overarching question was “why do rational rules result in a double-bind? Verstehen or “interpretive understanding” is a method of empathy that relies on the sociologist's ability to subjectively understand the meanings and motives of th... ... middle of paper ... ...ling' in modern society, it is still important to study Weber. His thinking about the nature of developments like rationalizations in the modern Western world led to the development of critical theory, which remains a vital philosophical tradition in normative discipline of social and political philosophy.
Marx Regarding the aspects of explaining the shaping of self, it would be instrumental to posit that, Marx had developed a solid approach in the manner he explained the concept of shaping of self. Consider the fact that, Marx created his hypothesis of alienation to expose the human action that lies at the back of the ostensibly uncongenial forces dominating society. He demonstrated how, although characteristics of the community we live in emerge as normal and autonomous, they are the consequences of earlier period human activities. Therefore, examining the manner Marx postulates his argument; it is instrumental to aver that, the shaping of self is clandestinely anchored within the scope of establishing the concepts of living individually as Me and I 2. Basically, in order to provide a comprehensive explanation of the innate aspects of self shaping, he asserts that, we are communal actors who continuously construe the connotation and operate in relation to individual consideration of the situation.
He opines in his framework, that ideologies organise attitudes, i.e. complex structures of opinions. Eventually, these opinions and attitudes form a basis of knowledge: “Knowledge according to van Dijk[…] is a specific sociocultural form of beliefs, viz. those that are held to be true by a speaker or a community, because they can be justified by sociocultural criteria of truth”. van Dijk tries to distinguishing between positive and negative ideologies, and
When studying oppressed and minority groups, historical analysis is valuable in aiding the development of alternative models of social change. Odell (2001: 161-163) substantiates this by stating that historical analysis is characteristically used to develop and critique diverse ranges of political and social theories. More specifically, historical analysis can be utilised to aid in illustrating a theoretical idea, to test a theory, or to generate a new theory. Historical analysis reveals more than theory can on its own, and can provide context and reasoning to... ... middle of paper ... ...reat to the credibility of historical analysis, and if are not overcome, lead to ineffectual and unreliable representations of history (Jupp 2006: 135-137). This would be detrimental when attempting to understand development and social change.
2. The notion of critique as a first comparison point 2.1 Early Texts The idea of critique is something that is present very strongly throughout Marx’s works; however, the way his critique changes its form and direction will give us the main comparison point to contrast his early and later texts. In the works around 1843-1844 we can clearly identify criticism as the main weapon of Marx’s discourse. In ‘Towards a Critique’, a ruthless criticism is proposed as what according to Marx should be the principal task of philosophy, a criticism which, given the social circumstances, should deeply touch the fi... ... middle of paper ... ...ossibility of social change was to be found in the analysis of the modes of production, and to do that he had to build an entire new system, away from the formulas and the mechanism of bourgeois way of thinking. Although the notion of critique in Marx in this essay has been an excuse to make a reflection on how compatibles the two main stages of his thought are, it serves as a very efficient point of comparison; and the best way to summarize that comparison is by using Osborne’s idea of critique as what heals the gap between philosophy and the real world in the early Marx, and his following thought about later Marx: “In this respect, strictly speaking, for Marx, there was no science of economics, but only critique”.
According to Sundar (2003) this research philosophy has an important role of an objective analyst be able to evaluate the collected data that will produce appropriate effective results. The interpretive philosophy describes by Hatch and Cunliffe (2006) and by Blaikie (1993) as the anti- positivist which contented to be a fundamental difference between the subject matter and nature of social science. Nevertheless, the social world argued that the individual group should be able to make sense of the situation based upon their experience and expectations Flowers (2009). Therefore, is a constant reconstruction in experience which results to differing interpretation this multiplies interpretation that creates a social society which people act. The interpretive is considered to be a multiple of realties, Denzin and Lincoln, (2003).
Focusing on how actions are understood, modified, refined and developed (Walklate, 2007). There are two aspects of symbolic interactionism was invented; ethnomethodology and phenomenology, the former meaning the everyday actions that are socially constructed, and if one does not abide by these actions, create suspicions from society and the latter meaning that there are aspects of social structures to be understood from the subjective experience. (Newburn, 2013). With Labelling theory and Interactionism being apart of ‘New Criminology’, the connections between Marxism really do answer a lot of questions retaining social order and
What are the principles that are involved in the foundation? The essential functions of sociology are the following: Individuals will behave differently in groups than alone, Rules that are socially constructed are abide by individuals, society construct the rules, Some people have more power in creating rules and penalties for breaking the rules, These constructed rules of society can be studied scientifically. With these principles, sociologist are able understand society and improve its well-being. The sub disciplines for sociology is as follows Protocols What are the protocols of operating within the principles of sociology? The basic protocols assigned to the sociologist are set to evaluate, interpret, and improve society.