Middle vs. Modern English in The Canterbury Tales As its name suggests, Middle English is the language that was spoken in the country of England around the 12th to 15th centuries. Middle English became the prominent language in England near the end of the 11th century shortly after the Norman invasion by William the Conqueror in 1066. Unlike England's preceding language, Old English, Middle English evolved into much more of a written language. There were many writers and educated English scholars who worked to translate Old English texts into the new Middle English language. There were also writers, such as Geoffrey Chaucer, who used the Middle English language to write new works which employed new and creative literary techniques.
This period is called Early Modern English. From the beginning of the 19th century we speak about the Late Modern English mostly affected by Industrial Revolution and the fact that British Empire took over a large part of the world what had an impact on nowadays status of English as the most widespread language. Even though the British and American English separated and had their own way of development, we can hear the influences in some American dialects from the languages of British Isles. The Mountain dialects or, in another words, Appalachian dialects serve as a very good example. This kind of the southern dialects are consider to be more guttural and in the way how it sounds it ´ought to be classified as archaic.´ [online] and as some linguists assume today´s Appalachian dialect is ´ actually a sort of Scottish-flavoured Elizabethan English.´ [online] Since the first wh... ... middle of paper ... ...e to concrete regional dialects and see their history and the way of developing through the last decades and how it is with these dialects nowadays.
And, an; come from Old English, so as all the numbers and verbs like: drink, come, go, sing, like, and love. Britain was devided in several kingdoms: Wessex, Sussex, Kent, Essex, East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria. During the 6th and 7th centuries, Christian missionaries brought the Latin language, thus the Anglo-Saxon absorbed Latin words which helped the language evolve. The Christian missionaries brought the Latin alphabet which later on would become the primary means of writing Anglo-Saxon. Beowulf was the first great rite poem written in Old English; since its appearance, it marked the beginning of a glorious tradition which would lead to Chaucer, Shakespeare and beyond.
One of the most phenomenal landmarks in regards to technology and the development of the English language was the establishment of a printing service by William Caxton in 1476 (Horobin and Smith, 2002). This provided an opportunity for intellectuals to induce structure and value to the Middle English language such that it could be applied for intellectual use. Through his printing press, Caxton made books available to most of the people who were willing to read. A major achievement at this time was the printing of numerous English version bibles. The use of Latin in the religious sphere took on a diminishing trend to give room for the dominion of English in Britain and its colonies.
Runes: Clues to Uncovering the Past The runic alphabet is an ancient Germanic alphabet that was used throughout Northern Europe, Scandinavia, the British Isles, and Iceland from the first century C.E. well into the Middle Ages. This alphabet, used by the Anglo-Saxons and shared with other Germanic peoples, was brought to England at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasions . While runes enjoyed widespread usage among the peoples of the area, there is no concrete agreement as to the origin of this writing system. Runes fell into disuse as the Roman alphabets became the preferred script of most of Europe, but their forms and meanings were preserved in inscriptions and manuscripts.
Around 597 AD. Christian Missionaries started to come and brought us some words like martyr and bishop. The Christian Missionaries came in and started to change what the Anglo-Saxons believed in. They were led by St. Augustine during this time. They then started to teach us about the Latin language and start to put them into our English language.
He was fascinated by the old, dark mythologies of that time. He specialized in Old and Middle English, and taught classes such as Heroic verse, History of English, and Anglo-Saxon Language as a Professor at various colleges. He even uses Old and Middle English as the main dialect seen in all of his books. His love and interest for these topics, languages, and the Anglo-Saxon time period are shown greatly throughout The Lord of The Rings Trilogy. Beowulf, being Tolkien’s biggest inspiration in The Lord of The Rings, is the prime example of Anglo-Saxon Literature.
The fact that Arthurian legends were in existence several hundred years before Malory’s life makes it essential to show why the study of his life and culture are important. The major reason why the study of the life and culture of Sir Thomas Malory should be considered important is due to the fact that his work (Morte Darthur) was the first complete version of Arthurian legends ever produced in English. Another reason it is important t... ... middle of paper ... ... that surrounded him. The final section of the paper deals with the idea that, even in our culture, writers are able to take their personal experiences and extend them to represent the culture as a whole. All of these sections are essential for understanding Morte Darthur, Sir Thomas Malory, and the elements he used from his personal experience and the culture around him to translate and write many Arthurian legends.
2.1 Old English (449-1100) According to A. Campbell (1959:1), Old English also known as Anglo Saxon is ''the vernacular Germanic language of great Britain as it is recorded in manuscripts and inscriptions dating from before about 1100''. The Old English period was marked by such important historical events as occupation of Great Britain by Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Frisians in 449;conversion to Christianity and introducing of writing; Scandinavian invasion in 787; reign of King Alfred in 871,who promoted the translation of Latin works into English, and composing of the Old English epic Beowulf in
A language with rather humble roots, one that has been twisted and bent, one that has taken and borrowed from other languages, and one that has been the subject of much debate as to the correctness of certain usages, today English is the language that the world uses to communicate. The world uses English for a variety of reasons from commerce and trade, to political decisions, to technology and science, and beyond. The entire world uses English to get business done. Thus it truly has become the lingua franca for the world. To understand how English became the lingua franca for the world one must begin by understanding the colonization influence of the British Empire, beginning with the Americas in the early 1600’s.