Macrophages, immune cells that detect and destroy foreign matter, ingest the TB bacteria and transport the... ... middle of paper ... ...esizing additional vaccines. Incidence of Tuberculosis, United States Many researchers attribute the sharp increase in the early 1990s to the spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). People with AIDS have weakened immune systems and are particularly susceptible to contagious diseases such as tuberculosis. Poorly supervised treatment of tuberculosis also led to an increase in drug-resistant strains of the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, furthering the spread of the disease. Renewed emphasis on control and prevention has brought the incidence of tuberculosis to record low levels.
Tuberculosis, MTB or TB is a common and in many cases fatal, infectious disease caused by various stains of mycobacterium, usually – Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. (Behera, 2010). Tuberculosis is spread from one individual to another by speaking, sneezing, coughing or singing. When there is contact by one of the mentioned transmissions, a person may be placed at risk for contracting this disease (bacteria) that attacks the lungs. An attack on the lungs occur when the person breaths in the air, thus the bacteria is entered.
What is Tuberculosis, and how serious is this problem? TB, or Tuberculosis, is a chronic or acute contagious disease caused by a bacterial infection. TB is the leading cause of death from a single infectious disease, accounting for over a quarter of avoidable deaths among adults. It can affect several organs of the human body, including the brain, the kidneys and the bones, but it predominately manifests itself in the lungs where it is called "Pulmonary Tuberculosis". According to the WHO, TB infection is currently spreading at the rate of one person per second.
Tuberculosis or TB is an airborn infection caused by inhaled droplets that contain mycobacterium tuberculosis. When infected, the body will initiate a cell-mediated hypersensitivity response which leads to formation of lesion or cavity and positive reaction to tuberculin skin test (Kaufman, 2011). People who have been infected with mycobacteria will have a positive skin test, but only ones who have active TB will show signs and symtoms. Basic signs and symptoms include low grade fever, cough with hemoptysis, and tachypnea. They may also show pleuristic chest pain, dyspnea, progressive weight loss, fatigue and malaise (Porth, 2011).
A1. Description of Disease Tuberculosis is an infection caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, an acid-fast Gram-positive bacillus, and “is characterized by progressive necrosis of the lung tissue” (Tamaro & Lewis, 2005). Tuberculosis is caused by many debilitating conditions like immunosuppression and chronic lung disease, among others. Nevertheless, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), remains the leading cause of tuberculosis worldwide. Tuberculosis can present in one of two types: active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis.
Conclusion: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This is an air borne disease which spreads if a person is infected by tuberculosis. The infected person release droplets of tubercle bacilli which are undertaken by the other person. These droplets of bacteria travel through respiratory tract and then invade the lungs where they multiply and survive. These M. tuberculosis inhibits the phagosome-lysosome fusion and also are resistant to oxidative killing and hence survives inside the macrophages.
Squamous cells are responsible for the rapid diffusion of gases between the air and blood. Great cells repair alveolar tissues and secrete a substance to coat alveoli and bronchioles. There are two types of Tuberculosis: Latent TB infection and TB disease. Latent TB is the infection that occurs in a patient who has not been previously exposed to the disease and has not been sensitized. TB Disease occurs when the immune system is not able to fend off the disease and the bacteria become active and multiply.
The bacteria can goes in the air when someone with TB coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. If someone exposed to a TB patient are more chance to have the infection. Complications Tuberculosis needed to be treated otherwise it can be deadly. It can affect lungs and all other parts ... ... middle of paper ... ...ditional data collection. National Tuberculosis Controllers Association (NTCA) Advance the elimination of tuberculosis is the mission of the association in the U.S through the collective coordinated action of the officials of local, state and regional government.
It has a very slow generation time as it undergoes one division every 15 to 20 hours. As M. tuberculosis is predominantly a pulmonary pathogen it is transmitted via droplet nuclei from an infected individual. Usual process of transmission involves generation of tiny infectious respiratory fluid droplets when a TB patient sneezes or talks or shouts. These droplets can remain suspended... ... middle of paper ... .... Bertholet S, Ireton GC, Ordway DJ, et al. A defined tuberculosis vaccine candidate boosts BCG and protects against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis and Its Pathogenic Processes Abstract Tuberculosis is the most deadly infectious disease in the world and is transmitted either by the inhalation of M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. microti, or M. avium bacteria, i.e. the respiratory route. It can also be transmitted via consumption of infected tissues. The bacteria propagate in a five- stage process if the body cannot manage to fight off the disease, meaning that people who are immunocompromised or near those who are infected are more at risk to get an active infection. TB can spread to lymph nodes, through the bloodstream and throughout the body.