And so in looking for the mind in other animals we will be looking toward science, reasonably. ‘Human intelligence seems to be composed of a number of correlated and cooperating neural functions, many of them already present in other primates, su... ... middle of paper ... ... become a very reliable thing. What is self- evident is not necessarily true, but what is scientifically proven generally is. Humans are aware that other humans have minds because we can share these experiences. The difficulty with validating whether animals have minds is that we cannot share experiences with animals, communication is difficult.
Human and Chimp Cortex Differences In humans Area 4 is almost twice as large as it is in chimpanzees. The part of Area 4 that commands the movement of the leg, foot and toes is smaller in humans than apes. This leaves more room for the part that controls the hand, fingers and thumb. Even bigger is the lower part of human Area 4, related to the mouth and brething and vocal cords. The post central cortex is enlarged the same as Area 4.
With the human evolution researchers are able to find these common similarities. And even though chimpanzees have a very close body type and size they also have some differences. Researchers have found all these results by studying non-primates many different way in the non-primate own environment. With these results and studies it proves the facts that humans are indeed primates.
In primates such as chimpanzees it is imperative to look at their culture to understand their intelligence. Culture in this circumstance means a specific set of behaviors obtained through learning in a population/species. Chimpanzee’s intelligence is quite unique how they interact with their environment and use it to their benefit just like humans. They have the ability to overcome the obstacles of everyday life through learning and the ability to use tools to create a better quality of life. The complexity of their intellect is different from any other animal ever seen.
The males are significantly larger than the female bottlenose. This accounts for the previously mentioned variance of sizes. The dolphin is quite interesting. They have a high and falcate (curving) dorsal fin. The flukes from tip to tip are up to twenty-four inches long, or two feet long.
The failure of the early studies to encourage chimpanzees to use speech sounds led the Gardners to look for a different mode of controlled communication. The expressive qualities of a chimpanzee's natural gestures meant that the language chosen was American Sign Language (ASL). This thoughtful choice of ASL meant that the studies reliability and validity was increased in a number of ways. It answered to critics of previous studies of a chimp just imitating sign language, which was symbolic for th... ... middle of paper ... ...ore natural context. Although the reliability of the study is widely accepted, the validity is constantly questioned.
Through numerous tests, Dolphins have been shown to be capable of recognising themselves in mirrors (Psarakos). Until recently, only humans and certain primates have been able to recognise themselves as a reflection in mirror, this is an important indicator of animals being able to meta-cognate, or think about thinking. This in turn indicates a degree of sapience (Sternberg). If they are proven to be a sapient species rather than a instinctive one, scientists are calling for them to be protected on the same level as humans. Dolphins have also been shown to be capable of planning for the future and have a sense of delayed gratification.
This paper will briefly describe the reason some scientists believe cetaceans are intelligent species and then give examples of scientific studies, which suggest cetacean intelligence. Since bottlenose dolphins and orcas are the most widely studied cetaceans, the survey of field studies will primarily focus on these two species. At the end, this paper provides an argument of why some scientists discredit the high degree of cetacean intelligence. Background Encephalization is a relationship between brain mass and total body mass of an organism. Biologists often use the encephalization quotient (EQ) value, the relative size of a brain given an organism’s body mass, to gauge species’ intelligence.
Some studies suggest that the human and primate brains possess many similarities. This demonstrates why primates tend to respond to stimuli in a manner that is closely related to humans. Researchers have conducted a number of studies in an effort to understand primate cognition. Apes have over and over again surpassed other primates in comprehension tests carried out in the laboratory. They are capable of reacting to stimuli in an appropriate manner.
Although animals were commonly thought to have some level of emotional complexity, it took a while for scientist to prove. Recently the well-being of animals have become a public concern. After all, the smartest of these animals have intelligence levels akin to some humans. These animals are known as non-human persons (Whiting 2). So far there are three groups of non-human persons: elephants, great apes, and cetaceans.