“Introduction.” In Modern Critical Interpretations: Beowulf, edited by Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. Chickering, Howell D.. Beowulf A dual-Language Edition. New York: Anchor Books, 1977. Frank, Roberta.
Frank, Roberta. “The Beowulf Poet’s Sense of History.” In Beowulf – Modern Critical Interpretations, edited by Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. The Holy Bible, edited by dom Bernard Orchard. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1966.
Cyclopedia of World Authors: Revised Edition, Volume III. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Salem Press, 1974. Rogers, Pat, ed. The Oxford Illustrated History of English Literature. New York : Oxford University Press, 1987.
"The Beowulf Poet's Sense of History." In Beowulf - Modern Critical Interpretations, edited by Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987.
Traditions of Heroic and Epic Poetry. Volume Two: Characteristics and Techniques. London: The Modern Humanities Research Association, 1989. Hartmann von Aue Iwein Trans. Sheema Zeben Buehne New York, F. Ungar 1966.
Grendel. 1971; rpt. New York: Vintage Books, 1989. Raffel, Burton. and Alexandra H. Olsen Poems and Prose from the Old English, (Yale University Press)Robert Bjork and John Niles, A Beowulf Handbook (University of Nebraska Press) Schucking, Levin L. "The Ideal of Kingship in Beowulf."
Christian Sybolism in Beowulf Within the poem Beowulf, the poet utilizes the Christian religion to symbolize the elements of good and evil and Heaven and Hell. Beowulf is the oldest known English epic poem. The manuscripts date back to about 1000 A.D., when two scribes wrote it down for posterity. The poem was handed down from the Anglo-Saxon period, and through the retelling of the poem, it changed a little each time. The poem creates an oral depiction of an epic hero who strived to fight against the forces of evil.
(page 68-90) Snyder, Susan. "The Issue of Race in Othello" Modern Critical Interpretations, Othello Ed. Harold Bloom, Pub. Chelsea House New Haven CT 1987. (page 23-37)
New York: Anchor Books, 1977. Greenfield, Stanley B.. “The Finn Episode and its Parallet.” In Beowulf: The Donaldson Translation, edited by Joseph F. Tuso. New York, W.W.Norton and Co.: 1975. Tripp, Raymond P. “Digressive Revaluation(s).” In Beowulf – Modern Critical Interpretations, edited by Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987.