Learning is an action or experience of attaining knowledge. Each learning process comes from instruction and study. It aims for behavior modification that is permanent. Learning theories are defined as “attempts to systematize and organize what is known about human learning” (Lefrancois, 2011, p.25). Generally, learning can be categorized into three types: classical conditioning, operant conditioning and cognitive learning (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).
Systematic desensitisation works by reconditioning people so that the conditioned stimulus elicits relaxation instead of anxiety. This is called counterconditioning. Counterconditioning is an attempt to reverse the process of classical conditioning by associating the crucial stimulus with a new conditioned response (Weiten, 1998). This technique's effectiveness in eliminating agoraphobia is well documented.
Activists tend to be open-minded, seeking challenge and immediate experience, but bored from implementation people, who are more prone to making intuitive decisions than those people who have other preva... ... middle of paper ... ...your learning style have to do with decision making process? In fact, there is a great value in understanding your learning style. By understanding your learning style, you can start seeing your strengths and weaknesses as a learner and decision maker as well as understand, predict, and improve educational achievement; improve vocational selection and sometimes placement (Clapp, 1993; Gul, 1992; Holland, 1973; Huelsman, 1983; Jacobson, 1993; Kolb, 1974; Sternberg, 1997). It is believed, however, that biases cannot be completely bypassed, and the effects of psychological factors will not disappear totally by any kind of learning. (Barberis and Thaler, 2003).
Further, attention is given to schedules of reinforcement used to establish and maintain behaviour. This topic will explore the application of Operant Conditioning where learning is controlled through reinforcement of certain stimulus and response patterns. Learning through Operant Conditioning To understand Operant Conditioning we must look at the laws that control the relationship between two variables: independent variables and dependent variables. When an experiment is conducted, the independent variable(s) are manipulated by the experimenter, and dependant variables are measured from the subjects. Skinners system described the independent variables as the type of reinforcement, and schedules of reinforcement, and the dependent va... ... middle of paper ... ...ses of the organisms to external stimuli.
Instrumental conditioning provides positive and negative reinforcement to obtain desired behaviors. This paper discusses learning strategies like punishment, extinction, escape and avoidance, stimulus generalization and discrimination techniques. It also look at implications like once the stimulus is master, then the reinforcement is no longer needed. The benefits and drawbacks are also discussed. Rewards being a major benefit for progress.
In psychology, there are countless approaches to how a subject could learn something; in this paper, however, we are going to talk about the classical conditioning, operant condition and also the application of it in the reality. First of all, we are going to discuss the differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is when unconditioned stimulus gets paired with conditioned stimulus so that the subject could learn it. However, the learners have to have neutral mindset about the conditioned stimulus in order to for it to be considered as classical conditioning. This type of conditioning has reflex responses, which means it reacts involuntary to a stimulus; salivation could be an example to that.
The assumption is that the strengthening of the Ego, the training of the id and the balancing of the super-ego’s moral voice will aid in decreasing the excessive unconscious living, feeling, behaving and decision-making. Psychoanalytic therapy assumes that deep seeded emotional and personality change comes from focusing on the unconscious. 4. The Psychoanalytic goal is to bring more of the unconscious to the conscious. The belief is that in making the unconscious more conscious, people will (1) experience the decreased effect that hidden disturbances have (2) experience freedom from gaining an understanding of self, behavior 's and feelings and (3) formulate more self-control over our urges, impulses, and drives.
Since every person’s brains works differently it is require mixing different learning styles when considering how to teach a lesson so it can benefits the most amount of people (GalaGan, 2014). Psychologists and neurologists work together experimenting with non-evasive experiments that can observe the brain working and how each side of the brain affects the subjects learning ability (Brem, Ran, & Pascual-leone, 2013) There are three different learning styles that can be defined to be the most efficient when learning which are: Visual, auditory, and tactile. Visual learning is exactly what it sounds like, it requires the student to observe the said subject while is being explained, preferably with pictures that can be recalled at will when the subject is raised. Auditory learning is when the student has to hear the teacher or recording in order to learn the material. On the other hand, tactile learning refers to the student having to do hands-on learning, meaning the student would have to practice an experiment or follo... ... middle of paper ... ...ated with the visual and auditory learning styles, while the right part of the brain is associated with the visual and tactile learning styles.
3. Behavior therapists apply well-established learning principles to eliminate the unwanted behavior. They try to replace unwanted thoughts and behaviors with more constructive ways of thinking and acting. In systematic desensitization, a pleasant, relaxed state is associated with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. This procedure is commonly used to treat phobias.
Bandura’s view about observational learning is an “information-processing activity.” We focused on three main forms of learning; classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning. In classical conditioning, we focused on Pavlovian conditioning. Operant conditioning described the aspects of B.F. Skinner. In observation learning, we centered on Bandura’s four main ideas. Leaning is how we respond, act, and observe what is going on around us.