Bioterrorism started in 1346 when the Tarter force, in Ukraine, experienced an epidemic of the plague (Bioterrorism n.p.). The Tarter force threw the diseased bodies into the city they were attacking to spread deadly diseases. Another case of Bioterrorism was when the British troops gave blankets to the Native American Indians that were infected with the small pox disease. Many cases of early uses have been reported but others have been debunked. Terrorists groups have become smart and have used anthrax in letters so victims will become infected upon opening.
(208) These research centers have been capable of increasing the hostility of a bacteria that causes anthrax. United States have also attempted creation of bubonic plague and tularemia bioweapons. U.S. scientists then became attentive on viral weapons, which are resistible to antibiotics. United States have grown viruses inside chick eggs as they need living cell to reproduce. United States have no history of using bioweapons, but they once almost used them.
It killed plants, went... ... middle of paper ... ...n the skin by those who handle infected hides and carcasses and may be self-limiting, but often gets into the bloodstream, with fever and exhaustion. It is characterized by malignant pustules on exposed skin areas. The inside type is acquired by inhaling anthrax cells, as from animal hair and wool, which take over the lungs and sometimes the intestinal tract to cause lose blood. It is speculated that an intestinal variety may be caused by consuming contaminated meat or milk. Workers exposed to animal products, especially wool, are protected by vaccination.
However, the dissemination of research has an adverse side effect in the current world. Scientific journals not only inform scientists about recent developments in their field of research, they also inform terrorists. It is possible for terrorists to use the same information found in scientific journals, intended for the benefit of the scientific community, to harm other people. The September 11th attacks force journal editors and reviewers to consider whether censorship is necessary to prevent further, more severe, terrorist attacks. I believe, however, that broad censorship of scientific journals will hurt our own efforts at biodefense and health care more than it will hinder terrorists looking to make biological agents.
Biological Warfare is defined as bacteria, viruses, fungi or rickettsia, which are used in wartime to cause disease or death in people (Hay, 1984). It seems like a contradiction. Doctors work hard to find cures and vaccinations for the various diseases and viruses that plague our population. On the other side of the coin, however, there are people that would use disease as a weapon. They not only use the sort of disease that nature provides, but try to create more effective and horrific manmade diseases.
Others letters such as this started popping up in major American media companies [Tom Brokaw at NBC], making the nation terrified to open mail. The man sending these letters, nicknamed Amerithrax by the FBI, was a bioterrorist- a person purposefully causing disease to create terror through bioagents. The infamous among the infamous is anthrax- a deadly, invisible bacteria that silently kills quickly and efficiently- perfect for bioterrorists, and threatening to the world. This deadly bacterium goes all through history and is feared globally. It started back in 1500 B.C., where an Egyptian plague affected livestock.
Pathogenic bacteria are microorganisms that contribute to development of bacterial diseases. There are infectious diseases well known in the historical context that caused epidemics, such as plague, smallpox, cholera, typhoid, and typhus (Wassenaar, 2009). In order to prevent or cure diseases the special medications are used which are known as antibiotics. Antibiotics are chemicals that kill, injure or inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Consumption pick of anitibiotics started with discovery of Penicillin which played significant role in the pharmaceutics.
Bioterrorism agents are potential pathogenic organisms or biological toxins that can produce death and disease in humans, plants or animals for terrorism purposes. These agents are usually microorganisms found in nature, but have been modified to increase their virulence and make them resistant to antibiotics or vaccines. To enhance the ability of these agents to be disseminated into the environment, terrorists find biological agents to be an alternative to conventional weapons because of their low cost and accessibility. Any attempted use fo bioterrorism agents whether a success or failure, could cause vast destruction of humanity along with disruption of society in general. Bioterrorism has been around for much longer than most would imagine.
Strep throat, whooping cough, tuberculosis and pneumonia are among some of the other fatal bacterial diseases which would usually result in a fatality. Antibiotics decreased the mortality rates, and so new antibiotics were formed. At his Nobel Peace Prize speech in 1945, Alexander Fleming warned against the misuse of antibiotics and the fact that by doing this, one allows the bacteria to ‘become educated’ and therefore become resistant to the antibiotic. It is believed that the first cases of antibiotic resistance were shortly after this speech. (Fleming, 1945) There are many medical professionals who believe that the rise of antibiotic resistance is a result of the overuse and misuse of antibiotics.
The bacteria prevent the macrophages from communicating with the rest of the body. Thus, the body cannot fend of anthrax and slowly organs begin to deteriorate. However, a series of antibiotics and vaccinations are available in case of an exposure to anthrax. Bacillus anthracis, or anthrax, has recently become a greatly feared pandemic. The breakout of anthrax on American soil in October of 2001 opened the world's eyes to the possibilities of bioterrorism of anthrax.