The first article is written by Dan Hooper titled “Dark Matter in the Discovery Age”, which delves deep inside what is dark matter and its makeup. Dark matter is a relatively recent idea, first considered in 1933. Astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky noticed that the galaxies within the Coma Cluster were moving at great speeds yet this galaxy cluster continued to stay unbroken. Many questions were asked, but Zwicky believed there was invisible matter preventing the Coma Cluster from breaking apart. Originally an unpopular theory, today dark matter is extensively studied.
Third astronomers could not actually see the comic background radiation. The last evidence concluded the theory of the universe beginning that Stephen Hawking said “It is discovery of the century if not of all time. According to the big bang theory they say that universe began by expanding form “Infinitesimal volume with extremely high density and temperature.” The big bang it not a explosion. Scientists believes that they think even time began with the big bang theory. Today ever scientists believes in the big bang theory.
These supernovas were much dimmer than expected to be, and calculations proved that the stars were over ten billion light years away, much farther away than they should be had the universe been expanding at a slowing rate, or even a constant rate, as previously theorized (5). This discovery proved that the cosmos are not expanding at a slowing or a constant rate, but instead they are expanding at an accelerated rate (4). Since this discovery, scientists have been trying to uncover what it is that accounts for this accelerated expansion. Scientists have calculated the density of the cosmos, and they have also calculated the total mass of all visible galaxies. However, the galaxies make up less than one-third of the density needed to satisfy the current calculations of the early universe (2).
Scientific View of Creation and the Big Bang A common question among people is why are things the way they are? How was our world created? There are many different theories, from a variety of views. In this paper I will discuss the scientific view of the creation theory. The theory that I will be discussing is the Big Bang Theory, this is currently the theory of creation accepted by most scientists as the explanation of the beginning of the universe.
The Big Bang marks January 1st and is represented by a huge explosion on the upper left corner. The background of the first four months, the first row, transitions very smoothly from left to right as we observe the birth of the Milky Way galaxy with a background of hu... ... middle of paper ... ... brought the beginning of humanity. The cosmic calendar contains a lot of information for viewers to digest. As people scan from left to right, they are actually skimming through history. It seems as if we know the entire history of the universe, but we still are confused about why and how all the events in the last 13.8 billion years occurred the way it did.
For as long as long as history has been recorded there has been interest in how the universe came to be. The science community seems to agree that the big bang was what created the universe, but there are many conflicting arguments surrounding what existed before the big bang and what initiated it. While there are nearly infinite responses to this question, there are only two paths one can take when answering it; either something existed prior to the big bang or the entire universe came from nothing. Lawrence M. Krauss, acclaimed physicist and cosmologist, uses his understanding of science in his book, A Universe from Nothing: Why There is Something Rather than Nothing, to elucidate that it is logical for something to come from nothing. Krauss recognizes that much of the world attributes the creation to God and quotes Steven Weinberg in saying that “science does not make it impossible to believe in God, but rather makes it possible to believe in God” (183).
Some astronomers think that MOND is the reason to why everything in the galaxy is being held together. Other researchers think dark matter is really antimatter or baryonic matter, some astronomers also believe that the expansion of the universe is not caused by dark energy, but the universe is expanding as a result of the big bang. Dark matter and dark energy are still mystifying theories in the 21st century. However with current the knowledge astronomers have obtained by observing the effects dark matter and dark energy have upon the universe, many astronomers conclude that if our universe was void of dark matter and dark energy, the universe would have never been.
The public formation of the Great Debate influenced the ways ideas were presented and it ultimately lead to the trajectory of the Debate. This paper argues why Shapley believed that there is only one Galaxy and how Edwin Hubble proved him wrong with his discovery of the expanding Universe. From this discovery, we came to realize that at some point in the past, our Universe was very small, probably a tiny dot, then after the Big Bang, it started expanding. This was a big discovery, which changed the history of Physics. At the end, the paper also discusses - if our Universe will continue to expand or is there a limit?
What was before this event is not known to any human being and is a matter of pure speculation. This occurrence was not a conventional explosion but rather an event that expanded all of the particles of the “baby” universe rushing away from each other. There were actually no galaxies before that of the big bang but it was more like it started the process of creating all of the galaxies that we know today. The person who came up with the Big Bang theory is Edw... ... middle of paper ... ...ational waves some scientists are already on the breakthrough of proving these theories right and hopefully very soon they will be proven. Maybe the one who is reading this will be the one to prove the Big Bang theory, the theory of inflation, and the theory of gravitational waves.
Bear has clearly researched the muliverse theory and accurately portrays the theory, using ideas from some of the most influential physicists of the time. He uses the sum-runners to give the three drifters the ability to cross world-lines, and while that may cross into the genre of fantasy there is clearly scientific roots in the idea. The Big Rip and Big Crunch theories are combined and used through the idea of the Typhon. Bear uses certain aspects of the multiverse theory from both theoretical physics and quantum physics, to create his personal interpretation of the multiverse theory. While the ideas used in this novel are strictly theoretical, and cannot physically be observed as of right now.