The retrospective cohort study by Grummer-Strawn and Mei (2004) sought to answer the research question: Is increasing duration of breastfeeding associated with a lower risk of overweight among a low-income population of 4 year olds in the United States (US)?35 The researchers aimed to increase the internal validity of their study by including a large sample, controlling for various child and maternal confounders (i.e., covariates), and stratifying analyses by race/ethnicity; however, as previously
of many studies all support the working hypothesis. This means the usage of DDT is far more risky and health hazardous to justify its use as an IRS fighting agent against malaria. The results of each of the articles and journals selected will be described in the order of Case-control studies, followed by cohorts, then cross-sectionals and lastly literature reviews.
The first study is by Rignell-Hydbom; et al. looked at the exposure to DDT as a risk factor for type 2 Diabetes. The study was performed
dysfunctions, so medically is too difficult to do for them intermittent hemodialysis. In addition intermittent hemodialysis will increase the mortality and morbidity among them. Within the modern intensive care units new way of dialysis has been developed 30 years ago called continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT).The definition of (CRRT) is any extracorporeal blood purification therapy intended to substitute for impaired renal function over an extended period of time and applied for or aimed at being applied
“Does bulling cause emotional problems? A prospective study of young teenagers” authored by Lyndal Bond, John B Carlin, Lyndal Thomas, Kerryn Rubin and George Patton, and published in the British Medical Journal 2001, volume 323. The authors set out to investigate if there was a causal relationship between being bullied and the resulting self reported emotional problems in the secondary school teenagers being followed up for 2 years. At the end of the study they reported that being bullied and having
function (2-5) and activity (6). Increasing number of hip resurfacing arthroplasties is being undertaken with good to excellent outcomes (4). Published reports show significant advantages of hip resurfacing as compared to total hip arthroplasty. Studies have shown improved gait parameters (7) and increased range of motion (8), but others have reported no difference when compared with standard hip arthroplasty (9, 10).
Despite these advantages there are concerns which affect patient’s and surgeon’s
fluid volume overloads. The not-so-obvious risks of RBC transfusion involve immunodilution factors that increase incidence of post-operative infections and a higher overall mortality. A meta-analysis of pooled results from multiple observational studies, each of which varies for risks between patients, shows patients receiving allogeneic blood transfusions have an 88% higher mortality, 69% higher infection rate, and 250% higher rate of ARDS.2 All intraoperative transfusions should be placed through
include being physically active, maintaining a healthy body weight, eating a healthy diet and avoiding saturated fat and tobacco use (WHO, 2013). However, studies have recently shown that carbohydrate consumption may be a risk factor for the development of the disease. The quality of carbohydrates has been of particular interest in many studies because of the rate of digestion and blood glucose response (Manuel-y-Keenoy et al, 2012). Carbohydrates that cause a rapid elevation in blood glucose (high
Cardiovascular Death – A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study. Plos ONE, 8(2), 1-9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056944
(February 5, 2013) This study went in depth to see if there was an underlying correlation between inflammatory bowel disease and cardiovascular disease such as heart attack and stroke. This was completed through a cohort study which looked through a Danish database in order to find the cases of inflammatory bowel diseases over a thirteen year span. These cases were then studied for treatment
immunosuppressive drug regimens after lung translantation. Among the three articles, acute rejection and BOS were monitored alongside patient survival, infection episodes, and possible side effects of the drug regimens. The Muhammet R. Celik et al. study “Tacrolimus and Azathioprine Versus Cyclosporine...
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of this genotype with that of Han Chinese and Korean cohorts to improve our understanding of the risk Hmong exhibit for this marker of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) caused by allopurinol.
Rationale: Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) are types of cutaneous adverse reactions associated with considerable morbidity and
commit crimes than older folks. Using PubMed and ProQuest, I looked at studies that relate to the topic discussed above that have been conducted in the United States and around the world. This paper focuses on how incarceration affects people and how to reduce it. Keywords such “how to reduce incarceration”, “effectiveness of incarceration” were used to find articles that were directly related to the topic. Prospective
Giving birth can be a complicated experience that may be overwhelming, exhausting and a miracle. The birthing process over the years has changed and more women are delivering via cesarean section. In 2009, 32.9% of births in the United States were accomplished by cesarean section (1). Once a woman has had one cesarean section the options for the next delivery are to have a repeat cesarean section or attempt a trial of labor that could result in a vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). There are
know what the best route of action would be. Is it safer to continue mood stabling treatments or discontinue them during pregnancy?
This study assessed the danger of return of mood occurrences among women with a history of bipolar disorder that continued or stopped treatment with mood stabilizers during pregnancy.
In a prospective observational clinical cohort study, the authors determined recurrence risk and survival-analysis-based time to recurrence of a new episode in 89 pregnant women with bipolar
thirty years ago (1). Recent studies over the past fifteen years have created much excitement about its potential applications and overall clinical value. Although NIRS is currently being used to noninvasively measure cerebral oxygen saturation (ScO2) during many cardiac and vascular surgeries, there remain many questions about its true therapeutic value (1). This literature review will offer a brief description of the NIRS technique as well as an overall assessment of current available studies highlighting
Epidemiology is the study of the demographics of disease processes,
including the study of epidemics and other diseases that are common
enough to allow statistical tools to be applied. It is an important
supporting branch of medicine, helping to find the causes of diseases
and ways of prevention. It can, using statistical methods such as
large-scale population studies, prove or disprove treatment
hypotheses. Another major use of epidemiology is to identify