1st try

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Underemployment of people with severe disabilities has been a major focus of policy, legislation and research in the United States (Barnow 2008). Although systematic investigation is limited (Markesich et al. 2006), studies from Europe show individuals with severe disabilities, such as schizophrenia, have low employment rates ranging between 10 and 20 per cent (see review by Marwaha and Johnson 2004). Estimates from the United States report similar employment levels (McGurk et al. 2009).
Moreover, the majority of people with severe disabilities are employed in segregated and non-competitive settings (Migliore et al. 2008)
In the United States and other countries, tax credit policies and workplace accommodations are among the tools to promote employment of people with severe disabilities (see Mont 2004).
Tax credits, used mainly by employers, are meant to create financial incentives to hire people with disabilities (Silverstein et al. 2005, Blanck et al. 2009).
Once hired, accommodations used by employees assist in a barrier-free work environment (Schartz et al. 2006).
Another major tool, framed as a labor market policy for underemployment and lack of opportunities to work and exposure to job skills, is the sub minimum wage (SMW) (Butterworth et al. 2007).
SMW enables employers, under certain conditions, to pay persons with disabilities wages below the established minimum wage (Blanck et al. 2003).
In the United States of America there are 29 million workers with disabilities. According to the Department of Labor (DOL), in January 13.3% of individuals with disabilities were jobless, compared to 6.8% for non-disabled workers (DOL.gov, 2014). There are inherent obstacles for disabled workers with regard to finding employment ...

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... and its findings were alarming and have been used by both proponents and opponents of Section 14(c). At that time, it was estimated that about 424,000 workers were employed under Section 14(c). Additionally it was discovered that the Department of Labor:
Does not track staff resources devoted to the program
The DOL does not have accurate information on its compliance efforts and does not use the data it collects to manage its oversight of the program.
The DOL conducted few self-initiated investigations of 14(c) employers in the past and does not randomly select employers for its current investigations.
The DOL does not follow up when employers do not respond to its 14(c) certificate renewal notices.
The DOL provides little training and guidance to its staff to detect and prevent employer noncompliance.
The DOL provides little guidance or outreach (GAO.gov, 2001)

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