Back in the age before the medical technology of vaccinations was invented, diseases such as polio, whooping cough, and measles struck massive death tolls on infants, adults and the elderly all around the world. Now diseases such as the measles and polio are rarely seen by doctors all thanks to the technology of vaccinations. What vaccinations actually do is either a killed or small doses of the disease is injected into a person’s body, allowing the body to recognize and create antibodies to stop the disease if it ever comes in contact with the person. An immunity is developed to the disease and vaccinations have been able to save lives all around the world and eradicate major diseases.
Vaccines have been introduced in the world of medicine to prevent diseases and save lives. Vaccines prevent people from contracting diseases which “killed in masses.” Meanwhile, diseases like polio are becoming more common, even though there has been a polio vaccine available for many years (Nesson 18). Thorough research on vaccines shows that vaccinating children causes no harm; in fact, it is necessary to vaccinate children in order to maintain a healthy environment.
Without a doubt, the 1920s were a period of great change and a source of pride for millions of Canadians all over Canada. The aftermath of World War I had lead Canada to develop a national identity rather than a colony of Britain, expand its economy to a greater extent, and revolutionize its technology.1 Of the countless Canadian innovations in the “roaring twenties”, the three most significant changes are the medical advances, the telephone, and the Model T car.
Every parent is concerned with their child’s health. However, this concern can take several directions. While some parents are convinced that vaccines have been invented to prevent the human-to-human transmitted diseases, which otherwise can have serious health consequences on children and adults, other parents are certain that it is the vaccines themselves that pose a risk to their children’s health. Both have reasons to believe what they do. It has been known that ever since the vaccines for diseases like diphtheria and measles were introduced in the twentieth century, the number of deaths related to these diseases decreased by more than 500 percent1. On the other hand, the mid-twentieth century was also the time when such signs as nutrition, sanitation and healthcare, and other important factors of spreading vaccine-preventable diseases have been greatly improved.
Sato, Hiroko and Sato, Yuji. “Experience with Diphtheria Toxoid–Tetanus Toxoid–Acellular Pertussis Vaccine in Japan”. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 28.2 (1999): 124-129. Print.
Rosenfeld, Louis. Insulin: Discovery and Controversy. 2002. American Association for Clinical Chemistry Inc. 9 October 2009 .
Jen CarrollCMS Value-Based ProgramsThe CMS Value-Based Program will be an adjustment for some providers who have been rewarded for treating patients in numbers, the more patients they see in a day the more revenue is generated. The structure of Categories 2,3 & 4of the CMS value base program changes that mindset, pay is linked to quality of care not volume of patients treated. Category 2 Fee for service breaks the service provided for the patient into individual units. Payment is based on delivery of care, quality, and efficiency of care delivered. Category 3 relies on shared risk otherwise known as two -sided risk, shared savings payment approach. Effective management of the population, episode of care, and delivery of services are linked
In his seminal 2010 editorial, “What is value in healthcare?”, Porter3 described value as a ratio: a specific set of patient-centered outcomes achieved along the entire pathway of care relative to the total cost involved along the entire pathway of care. His “specific set of outcomes” refers to a hierarchy of outcomes, with survival being the highest-value outcome, followed by patient-reported functional status, cycle time (time from diagnosis to recovery), and discomfort of treatment.
Canadian physician Frederick Banting and medical student Charles H. Best discovered the hormone insulin in pancreatic extracts of dogs. On July 30, 1921, they injected insulin into a diabetic dog and found that it effectively lowered the dog's blood sugar levels to normal. Diabetes used to be a terminal disease. People had to go on a diet, but there was nothing that could be done to combat the disease. Discovering Insulin changed the lives of many people that had diabetes. Leonard Thompson was the first patient to receive insulin injections, in January 1922. At age 14 Thompson Diabetes got worse, he was close to slipping into a diabetic coma and would soon die. His father let the hospital try Banting and best’s pancreatic extract for the first time. A few days later Thompson blood sugar returned to normal and his diabetic symptoms began to disappear.
Diabetes was first discovered by Aretaeus of Cappadocia a Greek physician around 1600 B.C. The most common nickname of diabetes is the sweet urine disease because the urine of a person with diabetes is usually sweeter than a person without diabetes. In 1889 two German scientists by the names of Oskar Minkowski and Joseph Von Mering discovered the relation between diabetes and the pancreas. Then around 1921 Frederick Banting from Canada tried to extract insulin from the pancreas. The insulin he extracted from the pancreas served as a miracle drug to all of the diabetes.
Early in life, type 1 diabetes is diagnosed to adolescents. The disease is incurable, but treatable. It is actually treatable with a vaccine called insulin. Insulin was extracted from a dog pancreas. With the use of the dog, there was actually hope for a disease that was thought to be incurable for the longest time. In 1922 the extract was finally starting to be used in human patients. Without the help of animals, there would be no treatment for this disease.
Banting and Best used insulin from cattle and injected it into a 13-year-old girl. The girl, Lilly, was the first patient given cattle insulin and survived to live a healthy life. When she was first diagnosed with diabetes, she was 13 years old and weighed 45 pounds. She was so skinny that her ribs in her chest and bones in her legs showed. Months after given the treatment, her pictures indicated that she had gained weight and her complexion was more colorful. Years later, the portrait showed her as a h...