In 1917, Russia was rocked by a series of revolutions, following the end of World War I. The country experienced great economic difficulties and famine, and the people became dissatisfied with the Tsarist rule. Tsar Nicholas II of the Romanov dynasty was abdicated, and on July 17th, he and his family, along with several servants were executed by the Bolsheviks.
The significant historical trend of rebellion against authoritarian rule in Russia is demonstrated through three key events; the 1905 Revolution, the February 1917 revolution and the October 1917 revolution. These events was a culmination of economic, social, and political forces which was driven by a deep dissatisfaction with inequality within society and incompetent leadership of Tsar Nicholas. The events of Bloody Sunday in 1905, as the massacre became known, started a movement that the government could not control and forced the Tsar to make some concessions, which did not last long. The further eroded public confidence in his government and in the view of the lack of the Tsar 's credibility were prepared the way for the 1917 Revolutions.
In the years leading up to the revolution, Russia had been involved in a series of wars. The Crimean war, The Russo-Turkish war, The Russo-Japanese war and the First World War. Russia had been defeated in all except the war with Turkey and its government and economy had the scars to prove it. A severe lack of food and poor living conditions amongst the peasant population led firstly to strikes and quickly escalated to violent riots. Tsar Nicholas II ruled Russia with an iron hand while much of Europe was moving away from the monarchical system of rule. All lands were owned by the Tsar’s family and Nobel land lords while the factories and industrial complexes were owned by the capitalists’. There were no unions or labour laws and the justice system had made almost all other laws in favour of the ruling elite. Rents and taxes were often unaffordable, while the gulf between workers and the ruling elite grew ever wider.
...g the peasants some sense of freedom from their landowners, the peasants being killed off in Bloody Sunday overshadowed Tsar’s cause as a whole. Bloody Sunday is seen as a blessing and a curse for the peasants cause. Although harmless peasants were killed, this massacre angered various ethnic groups and started many rebellions throughout Russia.
Czar Nicholas’ poor leadership forced him to abdicate and caused the Bolshevik takeover. One of the reasons I say that is because of the way he handled “Bloody Sunday”. “Bloody Sunday” was when troops killed over a thousand people in a peaceful worker assembly. After “Bloody Sunday”, workers all over Russia went on strike, and peasants caused uprisings that were suppressed by Nicholas II’s troops causing tensions to increase. Another reason was his disastrous involvement in World War I. In the beginning of the war, Russia’s armies did not do well. To fix this, Nicholas became the commander. Now under his command, their continued failure reflected the Czar himself, further decreasing his popularity. Lastly, civil unrest grew as food riots, chronic food shortages, and labor strikes continued to proceed. This eventually erupted into open revolt, and Czar Nicholas had no choice but to abdicate. Soon after, the new government was overthrown by the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin.
future leader of the Soviet Union as a “dress rehearsal” for the 1917 revolution. The most important difference is that the 1905 revolution failed to destroy the autocracy in Imperial Russia. A combination of reasons can explain why this revolution failed at overthrowing the Tsar Nikolas the Second. The revolutions participants were not revolutionaries that wanted to overthrow the Tsar, it was not started by revolutionary groups. The military and military context played an important role to the revolution’s failure, and the autocracy’s reforms gave compromise to the protestors who could be satisfied with the changes. These factors show why the 1905 revolution failed to destroy the autocracy.
Russia existed in turmoil at the close of the 19th century. This tumultuous atmosphere spilled over into the new century. This time period is a portrait of a country in a state of constant change. However, this change was far more problematic to Russia that similar progress of western European nations. An examination of the revolutionary period of 1905 presents the inevitability of such a revolution. Russia's rapid industrialization and modernization had inherent problems. Typically, countries, which undergo rapid periods of industrialization, subvert the well being of the common individual in favour of the progress of the nation. This was the case in a rapidly industrializing Russian economy. The rise of capitalism led to an increase of inequality between the classes. In addition, the mistakes of the Russo-Japanese war loomed upon the horizon of the Russian political climate. These factors, in cooperation with the archaic autocratic government, led to civil unrest. Protests and strikes led to the formation of radical political parties. The Russian people were dissatisfied with their government and their way of life; and they were becoming increasingly vocal in their protests. The revolution of 1905 was a product of continued autocratic repression of the Russian people, and the inability of the autocracy to effectively represent and govern the vast nation of Russia.
Obviously this led to protests and riots like in March 1917, 200,000 protesters in the capital even though Nicholas ordered the military to subdue the protests but they joined the protesters and fired shot in the air. A few days the later protesters gained control of the city which is the start of the 1917 Russian revolution. Nicholas was cornered into abdicating the throne since he had no longer any control on the country even though he thought that he could somehow regain control again. This marked the end to the rule of the last Tsar r...
The Russian Revolution occured in two stages/times, February nd October of 1917. As cited in document 1, "Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown and a liberal democratic government came to power." What lead to the Febraury Revolution was the peasant agriculture to the Russian population, autocracy, and the outbreak of WW1. A long-term cause was the peasant agriculture to the Russian population. As said in document 1, "For all of its history before the 20th cwntury, 80-95% of the population were poor pasants, farmers just barely scratching a living form the land. For most of that history (between 1694-1861) the majority of these peasants were enserfed." to enserf means to be aprovd of liberty and personal rights. Before 1917 peasants recieved sympathy from
By March 1917, disasters on the battlefield, combined with food and fuel shortages on the front, brought the monarchy to collapse. In St. Petersburg workers were going on strike. Marchers, mostly women were shouting, "Bread! Bread! Bread!" Troops refused to fire on demonstrators, leaving the government helpless. Duma politicians setup a temporary government/ Middle class liberals prepared a constitution for a new Russian republic. At the same time they continued the war with Germany. That decision proved fatal. Most Russians were fed up with the war and returned home, leaving the front. Peasants wanted land and people wanted food. Cities set up soviets, council of workers and soldiers, which worked dramatically within the government. Before long a radical social group took charge called the Bolsheviks emerged. Their leader was V.I. Lenin.
Tsar Nicholas II was a family man who put his family before the wellbeing of the country. In the Bloody Sunday scene thousands of people were marching to the Winter Palace to request help and protection from the Tsar because he was supposed to be in St Petersburg. However he was not there, he had gone home to tend to his son because he was ill. This resulted in the massacring of approximately 200 people who meant no harm . After his abdication in a conversation with his son Alexi he tells him that he abdicated for him. He tells Alexi, “I didn't want you to pay for my mistakes.” Whether this was the reason for his abdication or not the movie led the viewers to believe that everything he did was for his family. The leader of a country should make decisions that will be better for the country, not their family. He put the wellbeing of his family before the country which shows inadequate leadership that ultimately led to the collapse of the old reg...
January 22, 1905, commonly known as Bloody Sunday, was the beginning of the Russian Revolution. “Father Gapon led a group of demonstrators to bring economic grievances to the tsar. Police fired upon the demonstrators as they approached the Winter Palace.”(Outline, 2) The revolution started with a priest leading demonstrators to the Winter Palace, not the working class or the peasantry. The peasants living conditions were bad, and the government was making the situation worse by taxing harshly. “The urban revolution of 1905 stimulated the most serious peasant uprising since the Pugachev revolt in the late eighteenth century. Peasant rioting consisted of the sacking and burning of manor houses and attacks on landowners and officials.”(Fitzpatrick, 34) The peasantry was showing signs of rioting behavior, but not revolutionary change. During October of 1905 the Tsar Nicholas the II agreed to an elected parliament called the Duma.
Bloody Sunday was the day that father Gapon walked to the winter palace with thousands of workers and a petition to outline the problems and hardships caused by the tsar and to demand change be made consisting of an improvement to working conditions, a reduction in working hours and an end to the Russo Japanese war. This is an extract from that petition, “We workers, inhabitants of St. Petersburg, have come to Thee. We are unfortunate, reviled slaves, weighed down by despotism and tyranny. Our patience exhausted, we ceased work and begged our masters to give us only that without which life is a torment. But this was refused; to the employers everything seemed unlawful. We are here, many thou sands of us. Like the whole of the Russian people, we have no human rights whatever. Owing to the deeds of Thy officials we have become slaves.” However this peaceful march ended horribly as when the group of marchers arrived at their destination they were confronted by Russian troops and the police and shots were fired into the crowd resulting in hundreds of dead Russians lying in the street. The events of bloody Sunday were a key factor in the causing of the 1905 Russian revolution as they made Russians angry at the way the tsar, his army and the police dealt with things causing many of
The poor performance of the Russian government, and with the stress that the war put on the Russian society and economy, made people who were already unhappy with the regime want to split and rebel. Russians had been unhappy for a long time with the autocratic tsarist regime and the country's economic backwardness. This unhappiness had been had been their since the country's war loss against Japan in 1905. Less than ten years later after the Japan war, Russia was back at war. Once again Russia suffered humiliating defeats. This made the people once again more angry and unhappy with their government. 1.7 million Russians were killed and about 5 million wounded. The Russians were later unhappy with the regimes ineptitude and also with its lack of concern for huge casualty numbers. The people also got upset with the economic issue. The Russian economy was never really strong, and now it had to waste all it had to fight in the war. This led to shortages for civilian population and even more unrest. And since the Ottoman Empire was allied with Germany, and was the southern blockade route that led to Russia. It made Russia stop getting supply's, run out of food, prices went up, huge inflation, and massive poverty. How do you think the Russian people felt ? All of this unhappiness of the Russian people helped to create a situation where the Russian Revolution could take