He came up with a favorable reconstruction policy for the South that had been defeated (Fuentes‐Rohwer 63). All ex-Confederates were given total amnesty, restoration of the status of the US states that had seceded. The Southern governments that were new had to be approved provided they had legislated black codes which were supportive of the preservation of slavery. Republicans fully rejected the ideas of Johnson and instead came up with radical reconstruction. They continuously overrode the vetoes by the president. The radical reconstruction held that the southern governments had no option but to give way to military rule. Furthermore, the African Americans were not denied their right to vote which was their constitutional entitlement. In March the year 1867, the congress worked round the clock to do everything it could so as to weaken the powers of Johnson. The congress enacted the Tenure of Office Act that weakened the veto of Johnson. He could not remove office bearers of federal offices including cabinet secretaries provided they had been endorsed by the senate (Fuentes‐Rohwer 66). When removing them, the president had to liaise with the
Therefore, when the Senate’s control by the Republicans passed the Thirteenth Amendments and was approved by the Confederate states it became law on December 18th 1865 (Mullane, 1993, p. 293). The Thirteenth Amendment emancipated all U.S. Slaves no matter where they were located and the Southern blacks now had to face the many challenges the Northern blacks has face for many years (Reconstruction and Its Aftermath, n.d., para 1). The new Reconstructed Congress approved the Fourteenth Amendment in which calling for equal protection for slaves under the law. Additionally, the passing of the Fifteenth Amendment had the power to abolish male suffrage, regardless of their race or color, but black women didn’t have the right to vote (Mullane, 1993, p. 293). The passing of the 14th and 15th Amendment was a huge success because it allowed the black males to have a say so in the new Congressional Reconstruction between 1867 and 1869 in which it allow black males the right to vote (Robin D. G. Kelley, 2000, p. 240). There was a major difference between the President Reconstruction plan and the Congressional Reconstruction because the
The era of the Civil War brought a multitude of changes that would impact the lives of all Americans. After the conclusion of what would be the bloodiest war of the 19th century, several constitutional and social developments were brought into effect. Such constitutional developments included the Emancipation Proclamation and the Radical Reconstruction of Andrew Johnson. To a similar extent, the passage of the 15th Amendment guaranteed all African American males the right to vote, regardless of any previous condition of servitude. However, in spite of many positive constitutional developments that arose during this era, a combination of legal developments such as Black Codes and Poll taxes, combined with negative social developments such as the Rise of the Ku Klux Klan and White Supremacy resulted in an unstable
The events and movements that promoted the federal government to redefine the standing of African Americans in American society between 1857 and 1877 started in 1857 with the Dred Scott Case. This is followed a few years later when 1863 President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation. This states that “all persons held as slaves are, and henceforward shall be free.” In 1863 President Lincoln announces The 10 Percent Plan. In March 1865 the Freedmen’s Bureau was created by Congress. In April 4, 1865 President Lincoln is assassinated making Andrew Johnson president where the next month in May 1865 the new President Johnson announces his plan for Reconstruction. Shortly after in November 1865 there are new “Black Codes” denying African Americans many rights and allowing unnecessary arrests. The next month in December 1865 the states ratify the 13th Amendment that abolishes slavery. Early the next year in February 1866 Congress attempts to protect ex-slaves by elevating the power of the Freedmen’s Bureau. Two months later in April 1866 Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1866. June that same year Congress submits the 14th Amendment to the states for ratification. In the Summer of 1866, rioting took place in Memphis and New Orleans by whites, showing Northerners that they need to take more action for the freedmen. The next year in March 1867 Congress separates the South into two military districts that are subject to Martial Law. This allows for ratification of the 14th Amendment and guarantees voting rights for African American men. In early 1868 President Johnson was impeac...
African American voting rights, equality, slaves representation, and freedom are effects of Ulysses Grant helping the 15th amendment be passed. The passing of the 15th amendment is the reason today that blacks get voting rights and are fairly equal to whites. Without the 15th amendment blacks and whites would still be segregated and they would not have the right to voting and many other rights. Ulysses Grant had a large impact on African Americans and is the reason today blacks and whites can communicate together.
Following the Civil War the majority of African-Americans supported the Republican Party. A Republican controlled executive and legislative branch of the Federal government worked to preserve the Union and end slavery. Republican support pushed the Thirteenth Amendment through Congress and approval by the states allowing for true freedom for black Americans. This freedom provided free expression for black Americans in politics and the ability to choose for themselves what to believe. African-Americans felt a sense of dedication to the Republican Party for all they had done for them.
Post Civil war marked a rebirth of a nation. For certain individuals the notion of being free finally had significant meaning. The African Americans for the first time were liberated from the shackles they once possess. The once former slaves were now able to own land, attend school, establish churches, and a political voice. The United States Constitution now offered equal protection of the laws for African American citizens. Three key amendments would make this possible were; the 13th amendment which abolished slavery in the United States, the 14th amendment that offered equal protection of the laws, and the 15th amendment which gave the right to all males to vote.
During the Reconstruction Era, there were three amendments that were ratified. The first was the 13th amendment which outlawed slavery unless it was used as punishment for a crime. Then came the 14th amendment which allowed black men, people born in the U.S, or naturalized in the U.S. to become citizens. The last amendment ratified during this era was the 15th amendment which allowed black men to vote. Out of these three amendments, the 14th amendment had the most significant effect on the Black Americans. The 14th amendment impact on black Americans was greater than the 13th and 15th amendment because it reversed the Dred Scott decision, enhanced black males opportunities, and destroyed the separate but equal policy. These examples clearly demonstrate the evolution from slaves being looked down upon to them gaining their citizen rights.
The Jim Crow Laws made life less accessible to the people of the black community; however between the years 1865-1870 life became less troublesome. In 1865, the 13th Amendment was ratified and officially abolished slavery or any form of “ forced labor or involuntary servitude.” Two years after, the 14th Amendment was ratified also, granting citizenship to former slaves or anyone “born or naturalized in the United States.” Furthermore, the 15th Amendment gave African-American men the right to vote, however this face difficulty in the South and did not become fully accepted until the Voting Rights Acts of 1965.
The 15th Amendment gave African-American men the right to vote, which became ratified in February 1870. It stated that the right to vote couldn’t be denied to any citizen, regardless of race, color, or being a former slave. There were organizations created in order educate and train in the registration process in voting, for Blacks. Even though the Southern states were finding ways to make African-Americans ineligible to vote, such as literacy tests and using polling taxes. (Norton,