Diazepam (DZM), a benzodiazepine and an antipsychotic drug possesses a strong activity against delusions an... ... middle of paper ... ...ese were optimized for sharper peaks with less asymmetry and for good resolution of IPM and DZM drugs. Initially, mobile phase volume ratio was developed. Methanol and water were tested separately and in combination as a mobile phase. Further, sodium acetate was also used. The addition of sodium acetate to methanol and water increased the pH of mobile phase.
The onset and duration of action are dependent on lipid solubility. Lipid soluble opiods like fentanyl and sufentanil diffuse more from the cerebrospinal fluid into the neural tissue. This translates to faster onset and shorter duration of action when compared to less lipid soluble opiods like morphine, diamorphine and buprenorphine. However, sufentanil has a longer duration of action than fentanyl due to its higher μ-receptors affinity. Very small amounts of opiods are required via the central neuraxial route as compared to the larger doses required systemically.
Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and tween 80 were used in this study to examine their effect on the drug release from paracetamol suppositories prepared using HAMIN® base by the double casting method. The effect of SLS at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1% w/w in the suppositories was analysed, the percentage increase in the drug release was 26.6%, 28.9%, 37.4% and 84.6% respectively. But at the same concentrations, Tween 80 exhibited higher percentage of drug release than SLS which were by 0.79, 8.9, 10 and 10 folds respectively. It can be concluded that although SLS had increased the drug release from formulated suppositories, it was not as effective as Tween 80. Keywords: Rectal route of administration, Suppository, paracetamol, Sodium lauryl sulphate, Tween 80, HAMIN® base.
Lasix Pharmacokinetics Lasix is known as the “water pill” it’s a diuretic administrated orally. (1) The active ingredient of Lasix is furosemide, but also includes a number of inactive ingredients including lactose monohydrate NF, magnesium stearate NF, starch NF, talc USP, and colloidal silicon dioxide NF. (1) The peak effects of furosemide are typically seen within the first hour of two after a dose of the medication. (1). Lasix is prescribed for individuals to treat edema that may arise from congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis or renal disease.
The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate microparticles of Ambroxol Hydrochloride (AH) with different grades of ethyl cellulose (10, 18-22 and 45 cps) for sustained release and to enhance the bioavailability. The microparticles were fabricated using solvent evaporation technique. Formulated microparticles were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) for physico-chemical interactions and evaluated for particle size, percentage yield, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading capacity, in vitro and in vivo drug release studies using standard procedures. The mean particle size of optimized formulation was found to be 126.81±51.16 μm. The encapsulation efficiency of formulations was 56.35±1.06 to 81.66 ± 4.26, with least for F1 and high for F8.
The added electrolytes and carbohydrates in Gatorade would facilitate greater fluid retention through stimulation of renin and vasopressin, increasing urinary sodium reabsorption (3). Studies of both urine volume and plasma volume changes are eff... ... middle of paper ... ...the effects of osmolality and carbohydrate content of ingested drinks. Nutrition 905-913, 2009. 3. Osterberg KL, Pallardy, SE, Johnson RJ, Horswill CA.
Pearlitol SD 200 based proliposomes Ketoprofen proliposome formulations using pearlitol SD 200 and different ratios of HSPC and cholesterol were prepared. HSPC (a high phase transition temperature lipid) and cholesterol (for structural rigidity) were selected because of their lower risk of oxidation and improved stability of liposomes respectively. However any variation in the composition of HSPC and cholesterol results in the deformation of vesicle, which leads to drug leakage and fusion of vesicle with gastrointestinal epithelium (32). To conquer the lipid to cholesterol composition in developing stable proliposomes varying ratios of HSPC to cholesterol (total lipid mixture of 250 µM) were investigated. Physicochemical characterization of proliposomes Formation of liposomes from proliposomal powders Stepwise formation of liposomes from proliposomes upon hydration was observed under optical microscope and represented in Figure 2 A-D. Proliposomal powder (Figure 2A) upon contact with distilled water resulted in the formation of tubular structures (Figure 2B) due to instantaneous surface lipid hydration of proliposomes followed by budding off and liposome formation until the surface lipid hydration and solubility of the water soluble carrier ends.
The various batches of directly compressed tablets with different percentages of sustained release beads were prepared and evaluated for various physical properties and dissolution profile. Hardness of tablets was decreased and percentage loss in friability is increased as concentration of beads in tablet increased. All the parameters are within range for tablets containing micro beads up to 35% thereafter loss in friability and hardness are not within range. Keywords: Metformin Hcl; Immediate release; Sustained release beads; sodium alginate; sodiumCMC INTRODUCTION The successful optimization and development of drug entity, design of dosage form plays important role. The design of effective drug delivery systems has recently become an integral part of the development of new medicines.
Keywords: gefitinib, poly-e-caprolactone, microcapsules, desirability, controlled release. Gefitinib is an anilinoquinazoline under the chemical name 4-Quinazolinamine, N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-methoxy-6-[3-4-morpholin) propoxy] and available as IRESSA® a film-coated tablet containing 250 mg of gefitinib for daily oral administration . It is a potent high affinity competitive tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in the ... ... middle of paper ... ...evels resulting the diminishing of side effects, lowering the frequency of drug administrations while improving the therapeutic outcome of the drug which leads to ultimately the patience compliance . Thus gefitinib was selected as a model drug to design, optimization, characterization and evaluation of in vitro release kinetics of gefitinib-loaded poly-e-caprolactone MCs controlled release delivery system and to study the effect of different polymer: drug ratios (2:1 to 6:1) over phase volume ratios (1:5 to 3:5) at three different levels onto three responses. Gefitinib-loaded poly-e-caprolactone MCs were prepared by solvent evaporation technique.
Analysis and Conclusions  Graphs  Conclusions 4. Evaluation  Accuracy Of Results  Reliability  Improvements  Extending the Investigation 1. Plan Aim I am doing this experiment to find out how I can speed up the reaction rate between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. Equipment This is the equipment I will use:  Gas Syringe  Glass Flask  Calcium Carbonate  Hydrochloric Acid Variable Factors The factors that could slow down or speed up this reaction are:  The size of the Calcium Carbonate (marble) pieces – This will affect how fast the acid reacts with the marble, the smaller the pieces, the bigger the surface area so the reaction can take place faster.  The amount of Calcium Carbonate – The more calcium carbonate there is, the more carbon dioxide will be produced and the larger the reaction will be.