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Oxidative stress is the main cause of impairment of learning and memory. It may occur due to suppression of various brain functions. Antioxidants are therefore very helpful in maintaining the brain functions and improving memory. They are very useful in enhancement of spatial memory also. Various preclinical and clinical studies have been performed on their role in memory enhancement. It has been suggested that they are of prime importance in improving memory and both natural and allopathic medicines are available in the form of antioxidants to improve the memory. Therefore it can be concluded from various studies mentioned in the article that antioxidants alone can also be helpful in treatment of Alzheimer disease especially when there is stress induced impairment of memory.
Keywords: Alzheimer disease,Long term Potentiation, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, hippocampal levels

Oxidative stress
Aging leads to suppression of brain functions such as learning and memory. This effect is accelerated by chronic stress, especially psychological stress. Chronic immobilization stress significantly impaired spatial performance in the MWM, due to elevated plasma corticosterone levels, and attenuated hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP) (1). Stress-induced impairment of learning and memory is closely related to suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis. Chronic restraint stress resulted in impaired performance in the MWM and a decreased number of BrdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus (2). Stress suppresses neurogenesis of dentate gyrus granule neurons, and repeated stress causes remodeling of dendrites in the CA3 region, which is particularly important for memory processing (3).

One of the reasons why stress suppre...

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...rotein tau. Tangle formation is result of amyloid-induced nerve cell degeneration. Another hallmark of AD is the degeneration of synapses and the death of specific groups of neurons. In particular cholinergic and glutamatergic neurons are affected but even those producing norepinephirine or serotonin have been observed to degenerate.(12) (Byrne JH,1987).
Neuropathologically, AD destroys neurons in the cortex and limbic structures of the brain, particularly the basal forebrain, amygdale, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex. These area are responsible for higher learning, memory, reasoning, behaviour, and emotional control.

Anatomically. Four major alterations in brain structure are seen:
 Cortical atrophy
 Degeneration of cholinergic and other neurons
 Presence of neurofibrillary tangles(NFTs)
 Accumulation of neuritic plaques(beta amyloid plaques)
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