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Newshan & Schuller-Civitella (2003) demonstrated that TT is safe and effective to be implemented on hospitalized patients. A large-scale study was conducted during 1998 and 2000 on 605 patients who received TT at St. John’s Riverside Hospital. Qualitative data revealed that 48% patients (n=259) with pain experienced the reduced pain suffering; 48% patients (n=254) were found to have physiological response relating to relaxation; 90%(n=83) patients found TT very helpful or helpful by using Patient satisfactory survey. Only 12% (n=605) patients reported no change; in addition, 20% fell into sleep during sessions. However, the lack of predominated time for TT treatment and a compare group; the self-admitted questionnaire and the convenience sample at the single holistic department cannot be generalized to a particular disease. Busch et. al.,(2012) undertook a randomized two-group study to examine the effects of therapeutic touch (TT) on burn patients’ index of anxiety, pain, salivary cortisol and pain medication under a non-academic setting. A final number of 19 patients received TT (N=8) and nursing presence (N=11), data measured on day1, 2, 5 and 10 after administration, revealing that the anxiety of pain in TT-group was lower on day 10 and they received less morphine than NP-group on day1 and 2 but not statistically significant. However, the higher cortisol level occurred in TT group before changing dressing on day2, suggesting the higher anxiety level instead of pain as explained by author. Limitations of this study including the high attribute rate, the lack of control group and the incomplete datasets would weaken the power of this study. Their qualitative data from the random interview with 6 nurses showed that combining nur... ... middle of paper ... ...54 participants were randomly allocated to TT intervention group, nursing companion group and standard group. TT was given on 7 consecutive days for 20 minutes each day. Due to the high withdraw rate, finally 42 women completed study and only 16 received the consecutive 7-days treatments. Statistically difference was shown in TT group of lower anxiety level compared to presence and standard care group (p=0.27) on the first three days’ intervention; there was no significant difference referring to mean symptom score, regardless of subjective data from participants reported better sleep after treatment. Author hypnotized that the short period treatment and the insufficient measurement would result in the non-significant change of symptom relief. Further, high dropout rate, the inability to blind participants, small sample size undermined the reliability of this study.

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