Constant criticism of a child during the Initiative vs. Guilt stage of development leads to feelings of guilt and the child often feels a lack of purpose. Guilt also arises when adults constantly correct and discipline a child for exercising their developing mental power, and locomotor skills. Two polarities of behavior may result when a child feels a sense of guilt; At one extreme the child may engage in behaviors of flight, withdrawal, or a fear of starting t...
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...lue system and the capacity to maintain loyalties freely made in spite of unavoidable contradictions to value systems" (Poole, 2011).
Adolescents who are not able to establish a meaningful definition of self will often experience confusion in one or more roles of life. Adolescents who are unable to establish a meaningful sense of self may also exhibit role confusion evidenced by delinquency, cynicism, apathy, and an inability to settle on an occupational identity (Poole, 2011). Erikson states that a strong doubt of one 's ethnic and sexual identity or role confusion can often lead to delinquent and psychotic incidents. He states that when children are bewildered by some unassumed role or a role is forced on them they often run in one way or another; leaving schools and jobs, staying out all night, or withdrawing into bizarre and inaccessible moods (Erikson, 1959).
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