Epilepsy and The Drug Carbamazepine Essay

Epilepsy and The Drug Carbamazepine Essay

Length: 854 words (2.4 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

This study focused on the drug Carbamazepine (CBZ), a very common antiepileptic agent, which is mainly used for tonic-clonic seizures, facial and tongue pain and even bipolar disorder. Despite the cost effectiveness of CBZ, it also brings forward a few areas of concern. CBZ has been shown to produce various clinical responses within patients and unpredictable adverse events such as fatal allergic reactions and liver failure. This downfall occurs in roughly 30-50% of the patients prescribed CBZ. Many patients also develop resistance to CBZ. CBZ concentrations in the patients’ plasma and CNS are associated with the efficacy and toxicity of the drug, which gives rise to the study at hand. This study discussed the screening of patients, before beginning CBZ therapy, for potential markers associated with CBZ efficacy and toxicity.
Carbamazepine is absorbed very slowly in the body and is metabolized mainly by the hepatic genes, CYP3A4 and CYP2C8, to form carbamazepine 10-11 epoxide (CBZ-E). CBZ-E is then metabolized further, by EPHX1, into an inactive form and excreted in urine. The plasma level of CBZ-E, in adults, is about 15-55% of the dose of CBZ given. Carbamazepine also undergoes autoinduction and induces its own metabolism shortly after administration of the drug, leading to decreased plasma levels [1]. Mutations in drug transporter genes, ABCB1 and ABCC2, have also been associated with drug resistant epilepsy and low plasma concentrations of CBZ. In addition, nuclear hormone receptor genes (like NR1I2) are also associated with the transcriptional activation of drug transporters and CYP genes. Due to the many genes associated with the pharmacokinetics (efficacy, bioavailability and toxicity) of CBZ, interpatient ...

... middle of paper ...

...d and excreted in urine. A mutation in ABCB1 also was linked to high CBZ CL in African-Americans only. The study also associated a variation in NR1I2, causing activation of CYPs and transporters, with CBZ CL and the CBZ-E: CBZ ratio, meaning higher plasma concentrations of CBZ. Although this study did show associations between variations in genetics and pharmacokinetics, future studies must be conducted with a larger sample size to validate the findings. These findings are significant because, in the future epilepsy will be able to be classified by its oligogenic architecture and pharmacogenetic characteristics, providing the appropriate therapy for patients. [3]. This study is extremely important not only for determining genes mutations’ effects for future patient therapy but also in setting the stage future studies to conduct research and have a comparison point.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay on Carbamazepine-induced Hyponatremia in Patients

- Carbamazepine-induced hyponatremia Drug-induced hyponatremia is commonly associated with diuretics (frusemide, indapamide), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (sertraline, fluoxetine) and antiepileptics.[1] A 61-year-old female, 38 kg, was scheduled for debridement and superficial skin grafting for post-burn raw area in right arm. History and physical examination was unremarkable. Blood biochemistry was normal except for serum electrolytes; Na 128 mEq/L, K 4.3 mEq/L. The patient denied any recent history of diarrhoea or vomiting that could explain the low sodium....   [tags: epilepsy, drug, attitude]

Better Essays
537 words (1.5 pages)

Treatment Options for Epilepsy Essays

- Once a patient receives the diagnosis of epilepsy, it is time to begin considering treatment options. Since curing the disease is not possible, the treatment focuses on controlling seizures. This is typically done in one of three ways: drug therapies, lifestyle changes, and surgery. Many drugs are available for the treatment of epilepsy, several of which have just recently been released, such as Perampanel which is the first of a new class of drugs. It appears to cause an excitatory response in the brain, and offers relief for drug addiction as well as epilepsy patients (Simon)....   [tags: drug therapy, lifestyle changes, surgery]

Better Essays
597 words (1.7 pages)

Epilepsy Research Paper

- Epilepsy Research Paper People most often associate violent twitching, falling to the floor and drooling with epilepsy. However the described event is only one kind of an epileptic seizure, which is called a tonic-clonic seizure. There are many other kinds of seizures, and each has different sets of signs and symptoms. During generalized seizures the whole brain is affected and the initial symptom is loss of consciousness. This category includes such seizures as absence seizure, myoclonic seizure, and atonic attack....   [tags: Papers Disorder Health Essays]

Better Essays
1082 words (3.1 pages)

The Drug Of Choice For Tonic Clonic Seizures Essay example

- Compare and Contrast: Adverse Reactions Western Medicine The barbiturates used to be the drug of choice for tonic-clonic seizures, but they have been replaced by newer generation medications due to them being safer. They work as GABA inhibitors, which causes the brain to stop producing neuron discharges that stray from normal (Adams & Urban, 2016).These drugs tend to be less safe because of their narrow therapeutic margin. If a patient receives too much of the medication, it can cause excessive sedation that can lead to coma and death....   [tags: Nervous system, Brain, Anticonvulsant, Neuron]

Better Essays
736 words (2.1 pages)

Canines Provide Advances in Epilepsy Research Essay

- In spite of the many claims by animal rights activists, it is quite undeniable that animal-based research has contributed to a substantial amount of improvement not only in the length but also the quality of human lives [3]. Animal models have served in a variety of purposes in the medical field today. They have been used to evaluate possible values of treatments against different types of diseases, and preclinical efficiencies. Chronic studies using animals can serve different purposes, for example, the evaluation of drug effectiveness in treatments, tolerance, and side effects during administration....   [tags: animal rights, activists, epilepsy]

Better Essays
1140 words (3.3 pages)

Investigating The Effects Of Genes And How Drugs Are Metabolized Within The Body Of Patients

- Proposed Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of genes and how drugs are metabolized within the body of patients. Another term for this is called pharmacogenomics which is the study of genetic factors and the response to certain medications (Johnson, 2015). There are approximately 2 million people who suffer from adverse drug reactions and pharmacogenomics is used to give the most optimal care to patients by preventing any adverse drug reactions (Johnson, 2015)....   [tags: Pharmacology, Adverse drug reaction, Genetics]

Better Essays
1590 words (4.5 pages)

Understanding Epilepsy Essay

- Epilepsy is a condition in which the afflicted person experiences recurrent seizures, of which there are many varieties. These seizures have many causes (but the mechanism of some of these causes are still unknown) and treatment options. In some cases they can even be completely controlled. However, when they are not controlled it is very important to react in the correct way otherwise there is a risk of further endangering the patient who is having a seizure. Epilepsy was not always known to be a medical issue....   [tags: Epilepsy Facts]

Better Essays
2118 words (6.1 pages)

The Consequences of Epilepsy Essay

- The Consequences of Epilepsy Epilepsy: Any of various neurological disorders characterized by sudden recurring attacks of motor, sensory, or psychic malfunction with or without loss of consciousness or convulsive seizures (1). Is epilepsy a purely physical phenomenon. The question is a complicated one. Put simply, the answer should be yes. The psychological trauma sometimes caused by the seizures, however, makes the answer more complex, along with a more troubling trend. In years past epileptics were classed among the mentally ill, and received the same maltreatment as did that unfortunate group of people....   [tags: Epileptic Epilepsy Seizures Essays]

Better Essays
1526 words (4.4 pages)

Epilepsy Essay

- Epilepsy Epilepsy is a very common neurological disorder. Some reports estimate that five in one-thousand people suffer from this problem. Throughout history, people with epilepsy have been shunned or considered inferior. Even today, ignorance leads many people to treat the epileptic as "abnormal" or "retarded". Although the etiology of epilepsy is still not fully understood, it is quite treatable due to advances in modern medicine. Epilepsy is characterized by uncontrolled excessive activity of either a part of, or all of the central nervous system....   [tags: Neurology Neurological Disorders Essays]

Better Essays
2342 words (6.7 pages)

Essay about Epilepsy

- Epilepsy Epilepsy can happen to anyone of any age. The largest(47%) percent of people, developing epilepsy for the first time, being children from birth to nine years of age. The next largest age group would be ten year olds to ninteen year olds at 30%. The least amount of first time seizures comes from the forty plus age group. (According to EFA publications) Over 2.5 million people suffer from epilepsy. The international league against epilepsy describes a seizure as an alternative term for "epileptic attack"....   [tags: Papers]

Better Essays
761 words (2.2 pages)