In the book Public Health Medicine for the Tropics, Lucas and Gilles (2003) states that the term ‘epidemiology’ which originally meant ‘the study of epidemics’ employed techniques that were used in the study and control of epidemics but have now been usefully employed to include ‘study of non-communicable diseases and accidents’, ‘study of distribution of disease in human population’, ‘study of patterns of disease’ as well as ‘search for determinants of disease’. Furthermore, they stated that epidemiology ‘exploits the technologies from other disciplines – microbiology, parasitology, social sciences and new advances in genetics and molecular biology have stimulated the development of molecular epidemiology. However, for the purpose of this assignment, epidemiology will be defined as the ‘study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems (LSHTM, 2013). This assignment will review the epidemiology of Tuberculosis, Polio (Malaria???) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and among sub-Saharan African population with an estimated 1.3 million deaths due to TB in 2012 alone (WHO, 2013). TB is widespread especially in developing countries and the infection is further exacerbated by the emergence of resistant strains and in patients co-infected with HIV (Webber, 2012). At the start of the millennium, the burden of TB on the African populace has continued to increase (Corbett, et al 2006) and concerted efforts are needed to stem this tide.
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Web Path, 2014. The Internet Pathology Laboratory for Medical Education. [online] Available at: http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/webpath.html#MENU [Accessed 2 April 2014].
World Health Organisation, 2014. Poliomyelitis. [online] Available at: < http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs114/en/> [Accessed 3 April 2014].
World Health Organisation Regional Office for Africa, 2011. Eradicating Polio in the African Region. [e-book] Available at: < http://www.afro.who.int/en/clusters-a-programmes/ard/immunization-and-vaccines-development/features/3619-eradicating-polio-in-the-african-region-2011-annual-report.html> [Accessed 8 April 2014].
World Health Organisation Regional Office for Africa, 2012. Polio eradication. [online] Available at: < http://www.afro.who.int/pt/grupos-organicos-e-programas/polio-eradication.html> [Accessed 8 April 2014].
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