• Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs), inhibit the enzyme reverse transcriptase from converting the viral RNA genome into a double stranded viral DNA (Salkind, 2005). This will prevent the DNA from being incorporated in the host cell’s DNA. This occurs in step two of the HIV life cycle (Salkind, 2005).
• Protease inhibitors interferes with the enzyme HIV protease with is involved in cutting the viral proteins into smaller pieces in step five of the HIV cycle (Salkind,2005). It does this by blocking the protease which prevents the cell from becoming a mature HIV cell and effecting other CD4 cells (Salkind,2005).
• Fusion inhibitors block the HIV virus from entering the CD4 cell in step one of the HIV life cycle. It does this by attaching itself to the projectile known as gp41 and prevent the virus from changing shape (Salkind, 2005).
• Acute stage: last between 1- 2 weeks where flue like symptoms will appear such as fever, sore throat, chills, etc. During this stage the virus travels up the lymph node where it continuously replicates itself and then relocates itself in the bloodstream thus giving the individually a high h viral load (Van Dyk, 2008). Most individually will produce antibodies after three months of being infected with the virus therefore individuals will not test positive on the HIV antibody test (Van Dyk, 2008).
• Asymptomatic Stage: The person infected will feel well with no symptoms of the virus for long periods of time, the only indication that the person the person is in...
... middle of paper ...
...ipheral nerves or destroyed peripheral nerves it often causes weakness, numbness and pain (Davis, & Buskist, 2008).
• Heterosexual contact where one person is infected and transmits the virus to their partner. This a major concern in underdeveloped countries and must be prevented. One way to prevent the transmission is to have both individuals take the HIV antibody test or the use of condoms
• Junkies share needles amongst each other which can transmit the virus through the blood contaminated syringe when individuals share the same syringe. To prevent this from happening more exchange programs can be facilitated in areas where drug use is high
• Researchers have found that some people contain the mutation delta32 in the protein known as CCD5 which inhibits the receptor from binding with the HIV virus. (Hutter, Bluthgen, Neumann, Nowak, & Klüter, 2013).
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