HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which is a virus that specifically destroys immune cells (T-cells) in the human body. Overtime, the virus worsens and will propagate towards Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) which is a condition that prevents the human body from resistance to infection, disease, and other pathogens. An international committee of scientists first discovered the virus in 1983, but controversy exists about its origins, see Appendix A. The predominant theory argues that HIV was introduced to the human populations when hunters in Eastern and Southern Africa became exposed to chimpanzee meat which is believed to have contained the virus strand, see Appendix A. Today, HIV/AIDS is described as being an emerging disease as it is increasing in terms of prevalence within certain geographic populations (Fauci 2005). Despite HIV/AIDS being a highly preventable disease, the social determinants and the health/social inequality that exists in developed and developing nations seem to be the main cause to as of why HIV is still prevalent today (Morse 1995).
2.0 WHO IS AT RISK AND WHY ARE THEY AT RISK?
Key population group Reasons for high vulnerability to HIV
2.1: Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) – includes homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual men as well as prisoners Unprotected anal sex coupled with low condom use makes MSM highly prone to contracting HIV as unprotected anal sex can transmit HIV more easily than unprotected vaginal sex, see Appendix B. A study conducted by Grose et al (2014) showed that multiple sex partners and sex while under the influence of alcohol and drugs can result in low condom use and thus, increase MSMs’ vulnerability to HIV contraction. Homo...
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...ocial/health inequality and infectious diseases i.e social inequality drives the progression of HIV (Piot 2013). Also Schwartlander et al (2011) states that the global response was initiated so that there would be strategies and vigilance to deal with other infectious diseases besides HIV/AIDS, as the social determinants of HIV/AIDS also relate diseases such as malaria, Ebola, and tuberculosis. Appendix K also states that a global approach is required because HIV is a growing global issue and in order to sustain quality prevention programs and policies, collaboration from different nations is required. Despite HIV/AIDS control and prevention by addressing the social determinants of the disease being the top priority, investment into HIV/AIDS research has also been promoted by pressure from homosexual men, politicians, scientists, and advocacy groups, see Appendix J.
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