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Managerial intervention consists of changes in work practice or management. Policies or other rules designed to guide behavior at a particular site. (17) In most cases such interventions often take place in hospital and clinics. Some example from health services include modification to rule about record keeping, second opinion or case audit as well as decision to implement in service training or second opinion continues education activities for an entire staff (18) however, this type of intervention may be completely ineffective if they are not proceeded by extensive strategies of how administrative policies and management practice influence existing behavior. Anthropologist Judith justice provide an important example of managerial intervention in Nepal when she described the failure of a problem to send assistant nurse midwives to rural areas in Nepal. (18). The program enacted largely because of international pressure, paid insufficient attention to the political context and culture. (19)
Legislative intervention offers cover large audience and usually carries explicit premiums (e.g. tax incentives) or penalties (e.g. fines or jail terms) legislative intervention requires support from policy makers and takes time to pass and implement. (20) In some cases, legislative intervention involves a struggle between completing interest group with significant reserves at stake. The legislative changes that alternative sale tactics of nestle company in hospital cause about largely because of consumer pressure. (21)
Environmental intervention changes the physical space or the use of physical space, so as to link a desire outcome inextricably with some practice (22) traffic laws focuses on the objective is to reduce the number of traffic fatalities, environmental intervention can modify how car behave in an accident through implement a traffic law. Other factors also restrict the use of environmental intervention because the category term such as place is still poorly conceptualized and measure in epidemiology.
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Structural intervention often work because the challenge and reframe both conventional behavior and conventional wisdom about where change take place. (23). Intervention works to extend that they create new resources as well new expectation but new recourse can be more difficult to find when one ‘s attention is focused on just one type of managerial or knowledge based solution. (24). The example of creative social marketing to combat an epidemic problem to promote cultural change involves the case study AIDS in Thailand. When AIDS/HIV first came to Thailand, Mechi was already an important figure in family planning, he used that knowledge, and status to began AIDS intervention through distribution of condoms to decrease the diagnosis.
Lastly, individual or population is the last method of intervention referred by trosltle. The tactics for individual intervention focuses on a high-risk strategy is based on identifying individuals who as bed on screening for symptoms or behavior are likely to develop some disease in the future. (25) Smoking cessation program for smokers who have trouble breathing and dietary intervention for people who are obsess and feeding fault both follows are some example of individual intervention. However, population intervention approaches tries to reduce the risk for all by changing the environment or change general norms of behavior. (26).