Housing availability is one of the most difficult challenges in Indonesia. At present, there are ‘54,000 hectares of slums in 10,000 locations across the country, housing close to 18 million people’ (Bredenoord, Van Lindert & Smets 2014, p. 10). With continuous socio-economical issues, the housing shortage in Indonesia is likely to increase. In response to this, the government has introduced a self-housing improvement program for squatter settlements located in the river basins of Yogyakarta, an area prone to frequent flooding (Bredenoord, Van Lindert & Smets 2014). Self-help housing has allowed residents the opportunity to improve their housing condition and standard of living, however has simultaneously contributed to the rapid growth of urbanisation.
Furthermore, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has emphasised that the health implication of housing is 'intimately related to health as poor housing conditions provide defences ' (Terwari 1991 cited in Ray 2002, p. 1).
Squatter settlements are usually areas of socio-economic, environmental and health issues. As a consequence, many slum dwellers are motivated by an urge to improve the quality of their lives, prompting the mass m...
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...l Inclusion to help alleviate poverty (Un-Habitat 2004). The effective reduction of squatter settlements’ impact on urban expansion has been based on several key principles including principles of equity, effective leadership and taking an ‘innovative approach to urban governance and decision-making’ (Un-Habitat 2004 p. 134) which provides a voice for those living in squatter settlements.
This correlation between housing location and job opportunities is supported by figure 1. As shown, many squatter settlements in developing countries are located around major cities are often due to accessibility to the city centre, which is where job opportunities are found as well as industrial workshops. Furthermore, the arrows pointing inwards towards the city centre highlight the mass migration and rapid growth of squatter settlements surrounding major cities in recent years.
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