Environmental Impacts of Unsustainable Agriculture in Brazil and Costa Rica

Environmental Impacts of Unsustainable Agriculture in Brazil and Costa Rica

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Since the sixteenth century, foreign dominance over Central and South America has been attributed to farming and plantations. Spaniards introduced the concept of plantation systems to the new world in the island of “La Española” or Hispaniola. From there, it spread through the Caribbean, eventually finding its way into Central and South American countries. Plantation systems were founded on slave labor and brutal methods of exploitation imposed by European colonists on indigenous peoples, and eventually to African slaves, in order to perform labor-intensive farming practices. Since the introduction of the use of slaves, these countries became known as having a plantation economy. Plantation economies are based on agricultural large-scale production of traditional and nontraditional staple crops grown on large farms or plantations and rely on the export of their crops as a source of income. These plantation systems were prevalent all through Latin America up until the late nineteenth century where they became considered a monopoly capital asset. The combination of cheap labor and pre-capitalist methods of exploitation assured European monopolies high profits from their plantation’s produce vended in the world market. By this time, large merging of land, known as “latifundios”, increased the capacity of export agriculture, yet decreased the availability of food production for local consumption. This, in conjunction with governments’ fixation on the production of one type of exporting commodity, resulted in the impoverishment of Latin American masses. Major staple crops throughout Latin America like coffee, bananas, and later on soybean grew popular demand in the world market. Thus, overall modernization of agricultural ...

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...Costa Rica”. Science of The Total Environment, Volume 367, Issue 1, 15 August 2006, Pages 418–432

McCracken, Carrie. “The Impacts of Banana Development in Costa Rica”. 1998

Szalay,J. (2013, March). Deforestation: Facts, Causes & Effects. Live Science. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/27692-deforestation.html

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/index/en/?iso3=BRA

Weinhold, D. (2013). Soybeans, Poverty and Inequality in the Brazilian Amazon. Science Direct, 52, 132-143.

Kelly, L. (2008, October). Neoliberalism in Latin America. Citizens’ Press. Retrieved from http://citizenspress.org/editorials/neoliberalism-in-latin-america

Pengue, W. (2004, April). A Short History of Farming in Latin America. Seedling. Retrieved from http://www.grain.org/article/entries/413-a-short-history-of-

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