For the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, the accurate formation of disulfide bonds is an important biochemical modification required for the correct folding of some proteins, including proteins involved in the adhesion and destruction of human tissues. Amebic proteins such as the Gal/GalNAc-inhibitable lectin and the pore-forming peptides have disulfide bonds which are crucial for the acquisition of their active conformation [4, 5]. Thus, the identification and characterization of amebic enzymes that play key roles in protein folding is essential to understand this biochemical process and gain insight knowledge of the cell biology of this parasite.
An entamoebal PDI enzyme (EhPDI) that exhibits oxidative refolding activity in vivo as well as oxidative and reductive activities in vitro has been identified [6, 7]. Structurally, EhPDI shares domain architecture with the Dictyostelium discoideum homologue, DdPDI , featuring two active thioredoxin domains and a D-domain (also known as Erp29c domain). Interestingly, both enzymes lack the canonical ER-retenti...
... middle of paper ...
...zolides, Exp. Parasitol. (2008) 80-88.
 T. Kimura, Y. Hosoda, Y. Kitamura, H. Nakamura, T. Horibe, M. Kikuchi, Functional differences between human and yeast protein disulfide isomerase family proteins, Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co. 320 (2004) 359-365.
 C.W. Gruber, M. Cemazar, B. Heras, J.L Martin, D.J. Craik, Protein disulfide isomerase: the structure of oxidative folding, Trends Biochem. Sci. 31 (2006) 455-464.
 M.A. Ramos, R.E. Mares, P.D. Magaña, J.E. Ortega, J.M. Cornejo-Bravo, In silico identification of the protein disulfide isomerase family from a protozoan parasite, Comput. Biol Chem. 32 (2008) 66-70.
 D.R. Boettner, C.D. Huston, A.S. Linford, S.N. Buss, E. Houpt, N.E. Sherman, W.A. Petri Jr., 2008. Entamoeba histolytica phagocytosis of human erythrocytes involves PATMK, a member of the transmembrane kinase family, PLoS Pathog. 4 (2008) e8.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Entamoeba histolytica General Description Entamoeba histolytica is an ameba that feeds on cells in the human colon. It is the cause of amebic dysentery (bloody diarrhea) as well as colonic ulcerations. The infection is also referred to as amebiasis. If the organisms spread throughout the body via the bloodstream they may cause abscesses in the liver or, less frequently, other organs. Morphology The organism has two forms. The cyst is round and 10-20 micrometers in diameter, and contains four nuclei when mature.... [tags: Essays Papers]
788 words (2.3 pages)
- Biochemical and Psychoanalytic Theories of Abnormality Psychology is a science that is constantly evolving and growing, and that is especially true when the concentration of study is abnormal psychology. There are so many mysteries within abnormal psychology that there are constantly progressing theories. Two of the more familiar theories are the biochemical theory and Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. Today we will be exploring these two theories, how they compare and how each has contributed to the field of psychology.... [tags: Sigmund Freud, Psychology, Psychoanalysis]
851 words (2.4 pages)
- "Why is DsbA Such an Oxidizing Disulfide Catalyst?" Introduction The importance of the DsbA enzyme is due to its protein-folding ability in Escherichia coli bacteria. Protein is an essential part of all forms of life. Genes code for proteins, both structural and enzymes responsible for the utilization of other macromolecules. All bodily functions, therefore, are dependent upon proteins. Every protein, or polypeptide chain, uses the amino acid cysteine, which contain dithiol molecules. IN E. coli, this reversible redox reaction takes place between the endoplasm in the center of the cell and the periplasm surrounding it (see figure A below).... [tags: Biology Enzyme]
1202 words (3.4 pages)
- Enzyme Kinetics Enzymes are described as the organic catalysts, which increase the rate of reaction of a biochemical reaction. Enzymes are proteins that speed up the rate of reaction without being used up, and therefore they are reusable (Jonathan, 2012). The enzyme studied in this lab was succinate dehydrogenase. Enzyme kinetics is the study of how biological catalysts increase the reaction rate in reactions. Without the catalysts, the biological procedures necessary for organisms would not continue at a rate that could sustain life.... [tags: proteins, mitochondria, dna]
1663 words (4.8 pages)
The Role Of Physical And Biochemical Characteristic Of The Variable Domain Of A Heavy Chain Antibody
- This report characterized a novel kind of antibody called nanobodies (molecular weight of only 12–15 kDa) found in Camelids. Understanding the role the physical and biochemical characteristic of the Variable domain of the heavy chain antibody (VHH) of nanobodies (Nbs) plays in the clearance nanobodies from the kidney to the bladder will help advance the application of nanobodies in imaging. Nanobodies have similar properties to conversional antibodies but their bio-distribution and clearance via the kidney is different.... [tags: Immune system, Antibody, Protein, Antigen]
1523 words (4.4 pages)
- Throughout history, civilisation, existence, humanity has made boundless discovery, of which many handfuls, scientists have paved the way. Biochemistry and Biomedical sciences are arguably at the forefront of the battle against any harmful substances, diseases, mutations, and complications that threaten our phenomenal ecosystem. Organisms thriving within their niche is one of the many beauties of life. The fact that there is an ample amount of facts about the universe and science yet to be discovered intrigues me.... [tags: career choices, statement of purpose]
832 words (2.4 pages)
- “Imagination is everything. It is the preview of life's coming attractions.” Albert Einstein DMT: The Spirit Molecule is a research work based book by Dr. Rick Strassman on a biochemical named dimethyltryptamine (DMT) having short span but strong and mysterious effects. It is a psycho-active and consciousness-escalating drug commonly titled as ‘Humanity’s God Drug’. DMT’s psychedelic-effect induces near demise, spiritual and other-worldly experiences so, it has been outlawed all over the world with an exception as an primeval ayahuasca tea that when brewed forms DMT, envisioned to be used for religious practices.... [tags: Hallucinogen, Agency]
724 words (2.1 pages)
- The purpose of using biochemical tests is to identify characteristics that differentiate one bacteria species from another. When a patient is having signs and symptoms, you can’t tell what is causing the issue just from a description of how they feel. The process of determining the cause would be performing biochemical tests on an unknown sample. The results of the test are shown by either indicators that are present in the media, or reagents that are added. Once the tests are performed, and the results are gathered, you would use them to determine what bacteria species the culture was from.... [tags: Finger, Hand, Angle, Degree]
736 words (2.1 pages)
- Biochemical Correlates of Anorexia and Bulimia Millions of people in the United States suffer from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia nervosa is a dangerous eating disorder characterized by distorted body image, obsession with food and weight, drastic reduction in food intake often to the point of starvation, and extreme weight loss (1). Bulimia nervosa is a somewhat similar eating disorder more specifically characterized by recurring episodes of uncontrollable binge eating followed by self-induced vomiting or abuse of laxatives or diuretics (2).... [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
1064 words (3 pages)
- Summary We performed a series of experiments that enabled us to understand some basic biochemical and biophysical principles; Osmosis, Diffusion, Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic substances and the like. We differentiated hydrophobic substances and hydrophilic substances by observing the different reactions of water, oil, and substance X. On the other hand, we also observed the different characteristics of Osmosis and Diffusion. Finally, we described the different characteristics of some Carbohydrates and compared their characteristics with each other.... [tags: Biology]
1707 words (4.9 pages)