The Domain Name System (DNS) is a critical Internet
infrastructure that provides name to address mapping services.
In the past few years, distributed denial of service
(DDoS) attacks have targeted the DNS infrastructure and
threaten to disrupt this critical service. In this paper we
show that the existing DNS can gain significant resilience
against DDoS attacks through a simple change to the current
DNS operations, by setting longer time-to-live values
for a special class of DNS resource records, the infrastructure
records. These records are used to navigate the
DNS hierarchy and change infrequently. Furthermore, in
combination with a set of simple and incrementally deployable
record renewal policies, the DNS service availability
can be improved by one order of magnitude. Our approach
requires neither additional physical resources nor
any change to the existing DNS design. We evaluate the
effectiveness of our proposed enhancement by using DNS
traces collected from multiple locations.
Keywords: DDoS, DNS, resilience, caching
The Domain Name System (DNS)  provides name
services for the Internet. It maps hostnames to IP addresses
and also provides services for a growing number of other
applications, such as mapping IP addresses to geographic
locations or directory services for legacy telephony applications.
Furthermore, protocols such as SMTP and SIP depend
on the DNS in order to route messages through appropriate
application level gateways. As a result, the availability
of the DNS can affect the availability of a large number
of Internet applications. Ensuring the DNS data availability
is an essential part of prov...
... middle of paper ...
...weil, D. Massey, and L. Zhang. Improving
DNS Service Availability by Using Long TTL Values. Internet
 K. Parka, V. Pai, L. Peterson, and Z. Wang. CoDNS: Improving
DNS Performance and Reliability via Cooperative Lookups. In Proceedings
of OSDI, 2004.
 V. Ramasubramanian and E. Sirer. The Design and Implementation
of a Next Generation Name Service for the Internet. In Proceedings
of SIGCOMM, pages 331–342, 2004.
 H. Yang, H. Luo, Y. Yang, S. Lu, and L. Zhang. HOURS: Achieving
DoS Resilience in an Open Service Hierarchy. In Proceedings of
DSN, pages 83–93, 2004.
37th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN'07)
0-7695-2855-4/07 $20.00 © 2007
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