Empirical Research on Infant Development and Eye Gazing Essay examples

Empirical Research on Infant Development and Eye Gazing Essay examples

Length: 1766 words (5 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Empirical research has investigated an infants’ capability of using an adult’s eye gaze to direct their own eye gaze onto an external stimulus (Reid & Striano, 2005). Hoehl, Reid, Mooney, and Striano (2008) wanted to further expand on this research and investigate this at a neural level. It is necessary that conclusions drawn from this particular study are applicable to all infants. Therefore, it is important that this research is reliable and valid and that any limitations of this research can be improved upon to help expand the field further.
Research in this field found preferential differences in an adult when their eye gaze is directed towards an object, as opposed to faces with eye gaze averted from an object, in neonates (Farroni, Csibra, Simion, & Johnson, 2002). Reid and Striano (2005) examined 4-month-old infants looking at adult faces with their eye gaze directed towards an object and averted away from an object. It was found that infants looked substantially shorter at the object that was cued by the eye gaze. They concluded that the cued object was familiar compared with the uncued object which was seen as novel and therefore attracted more attention. Reid, Striano, Kaufman, and Johnson (2004) expanded upon previous research and investigated neural activity using event related potentials to measure an infants’ reaction to direct and averted eye gaze. A positive slow wave measure was adopted and it was found that the amplitude was larger for the averted eye gaze condition compared against the direct eye gaze condition. This increase indicated that the averted eye gaze was seen as novel compared to the direct eye gaze, substantiating what had been found in previous research.
Hoehl, Reid, Mooney, and Striano (2008) re...


... middle of paper ...


...search has provided a deeper understanding into the field of infant development. This study looked to see whether infants differentially process an adults’ eye gaze depending on directed or averted eye gaze from an object located in the infants’ periphery view. It was found that there are differences in neural processing between direct and averted eye gaze in terms of encoding and attention. However, improvements could be made to the study such as making changes to the face in order to see whether the perception of the face changes processing, as well as carrying out a memory test to verify the assumption made about encoding differences. Future research has focused on infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder in relation to the processing of eye gaze to determine whether autism can be identified early on in infancy (Hoehl, Reid, Parise, Handl, Palumbo, & Striano, 2009).

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

How Does Eye Development Affect Human Development? Essay

- The eyes are one of humans’ most used senses. Whether it is to see while we are driving, used to make sure that we are being safe while we are making food, or even to write this paper we are constantly using them to gain visual information. Eye development is started early in embryonic development and is regulated throughout your development so that when you exit the womb you have fully developed eyes. Throughout the evolution of eukaryotes it has been proven that, through study of different eukaryotes, that most eye development is regulated by the same family of genes (Yong, 2010)....   [tags: Eye, Retina, Gene, Gene expression]

Powerful Essays
1541 words (4.4 pages)

Essay on The Bluest Eye abd the development of the American Novel

- The Bluest Eye abd the development of the American Novel In The Bluest Eye, Morrison describes the absurd and racist standard by which the characters are judged. And through the actions taken by each character, that absurd standard becomes more defined, the conflict more poignant. In this particular work, it is the American ideal of beauty that makes Pecola resign her self-image as ugly and it is Pecola's reaction to this standard, her futile wish to become beautiful, that drives her into madness and thus completely exposes the absurd and wrongful nature of this standard....   [tags: Bluest Eye Essays]

Free Essays
409 words (1.2 pages)

Theoretical And Empirical Contributions Of Entrepreneurship Development Literature

- Conclusion of Theoretical and Empirical Contributions By looking at entrepreneurship development literature, there are four main approaches differ in their methodological and conceptual outlooks, they share a common belief that certain attributes exist outside the boundaries of a firm but within a region that contribute to the competitiveness of a new venture that emphasis the important role of existing ecosystem of entrepreneurship. These include work on cluster (Delgado et al., 2010; Marshall, 1920; Porter, 2000), innovative systems (Cooke et al., 1997; Fritsch, 2001), economic geography (Feldman, 2001, 2001; Malecki, 1997), social capital (Westlund & Bolton, 2003), and networks (Sorenson...   [tags: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneur, Saudi Arabia]

Powerful Essays
1118 words (3.2 pages)

The Link Between The Eye And The Brain Essay

- In the human body, there is a connection between our eye and brain that gives us the ability to see colors and shapes that make out the environment around us by the rods and cones within our eyes. These rods and cones are very affectively do similar jobs, but are different in many ways including: number of cells, shape, number of bipolar neurons, black and white/color vision and sensitivity to light (Cameron, 2016). “Our body converts light in ideas, of visually understanding features and objects in the world” (How Vision Works) and can see things that a computer can not see....   [tags: Eye, Retina, Cerebrum, Visual perception]

Powerful Essays
1100 words (3.1 pages)

Sun Gazing, Surviving Off of the Sun: Is It Possible and Is It Safe? Essay

- ... These are the safest times to do it, as you are free from the UV and IR rays that are harmful to your eyes. You can choose whichever time is more convenient for you. Sun Gazing during these times can provide you with Vitamin A and D. Vitamin A is extremely good for the health of the eye, which is actually the only Vitamin that the eye requires. Sun Gazing is said to provide better eyesight. Sun Gazing is usually practiced one time in a person's lifetime, spread out through 9 months or so. You can break it up into three phases: 0-3 months, 3-6 months, and 6-9 months....   [tags: nourishment, spiritual, tradition, gland]

Powerful Essays
1387 words (4 pages)

Essay on Metamorphosis in Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye

- The transition from childhood to adulthood is not as clear cut as the physical traits would suggest. The female transition is no exception. Culture has a major role in deciding when the change occurs. Some mark a specific age as the point of passage while others are known to acknowledge physical changes. Regardless, cultures around the world understand that there is a distinct difference between the two. Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye tells a story in the perspective of a young black girl, Claudia, as well as the perspective of her as a woman....   [tags: Toni Morrison, The Bluest Eye]

Powerful Essays
2188 words (6.3 pages)

The Bluest Eye and the Contemporary American Novel Essay

- The Bluest Eye and the Contemporary American Novel There are an infinite number of possible ways to study the development of the American novel. In doing so you invariably have to read a good number of books by American authors. The problem is you can't just walk into the bookstore and pick a few writers, read their novels, and think you understand the way the American novel came about. You have to follow certain guidelines, and read from different time periods to further your understanding....   [tags: Bluest Eye Essays]

Free Essays
495 words (1.4 pages)

Cinema in Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye Essay

- Cinema in Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye In Toni Morrison’s novel, The Bluest Eye, characters learn how to perform social roles though film. Pauline goes to the movies in search of a more glamorous identity. Instead, the unattainable beauty she sees onscreen reaffirms her low place in society. Laura Mulvey’s article, Visual and Other Pleasures, explains film’s ability to indoctrinate patriarchal social order. This ability is certainly applicable to Morrison’s novel. Film reinforces the Breedloves’ place in society, teaches Claudia to love Shirley Temple and constructs women as sexual objects for pleasure....   [tags: Toni Morrison Bluest Eye Essays]

Powerful Essays
1582 words (4.5 pages)

Self-Hatred and the Aesthetics of Beauty in The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison

- Self-Hatred and the Aesthetics of Beauty in The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison Topic: Discuss the issues of self-hatred and the aesthetics of beauty in The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison. What role do they play in the novel and how do they relate to its theme. Self-hatred leads to self-destruction… Self-hatred is something that can thoroughly destroy an individual. As it was fictitiously evidenced in Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye, it can lead an individual to insanity. Toni Morrison raises the idea that racism and class can detrimentally influence people’s outlook on themselves....   [tags: The Bluest Eye]

Powerful Essays
1283 words (3.7 pages)

Social Issues in Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye Essay

- The Bluest Eye Social Issues With The Bluest Eye, Morrison has not only created a story, but also a series of painfully accurate impressions. As Dee puts it "to read the book...is to ache for remedy" (20). But Morrison raises painful issues while at the same time managing to reveal the hope and encouragement beneath the surface. A reader might easily conclude that the most prominent social issue presented in The Bluest Eye is that of racism, but more important issues lie beneath the surface....   [tags: Toni Morrison The Bluest Eye]

Free Essays
562 words (1.6 pages)