The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

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The Electromagnetic Spectrum

[IMAGE]

The electromagnetic spectrum is the entire range of radiant energies
or wave frequencies.

There are seven main regions in the electromagnetic spectrum. These
are: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet,
x-rays and gamma rays. Each section of the EM spectrum has a different
wavelength, these are shown in the table below

Section of EM spectrum

Wavelength (in cm)

radio waves

> 10

microwaves

10 à 10

infrared

10 à 10

Visible light

10 à10

ultraviolet

10 à 10

x-rays

10 à 10

Gamma rays

<10

Each region of the EM spectrum has different uses in everyday life.

radio waves

These are used for transmitting radio signals, phone signals and
television. Also stars and gases in space emit radio waves.

Microwaves

These are used for cooking, in our microwaves. They can also be used
for communication.

Infrared

This is used for heating, night vision and in remote controls.

Visible light

This is the light that we see. It is emitted by everything.

Ultraviolet

Is emitted from the sun, it is what tans our skin. It is also used for
sterilising, and in forensic science, to see things such as traces of
bodily fluids, which are invisible to the naked eye.

X-rays

These are used for medical purposes in hospitals, to look at our
bones.

Gamma rays

These are emitted by radioactive substances, and are also used for
killing some cancer cells.

Each regions wavelength also relates to what it is used for. For
example, radio waves are used for transmitting radio signals because
they have a long wavelength, and can therefore travel further without
being disrupted. Also the reason we can see visible light is because

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of its wavelength.

radio waves have a long wavelength and low energy, this makes them
safe for us to use in the way we do, however gamma rays have a short
wavelength and high energy, this is what makes them very dangerous.

Task 5

There are eight different types of energy. These are;

Potential energy

This is energy due to position. Potential energy can be found in all
labs and work places. For example, beakers on a desk have potential
energy, books on shelves have it, and people sitting on chairs also
have potential energy.

Kinetic energy

This is energy due to motion, and can be found in many work places.
Something that is falling has kinetic energy.

Electrical energy

This is the energy associated with moving electrical charge and can
also be found in many work places. For example, the energy that comes
from a power socket is electrical energy.

Light energy

This is the energy of electromagnetic waves

Solar energy

This is the energy that is emitted from the sun

Chemical energy

This is the energy released by chemical reactions. This form of energy
can be found in a chemistry laboratory

Nuclear energy

This energy is associated with particles of atoms.

Thermal energy.

This is sometimes called heat energy and can be found in many work
places and labs. For example, a water bath in a lab will emit heat
energy when in use, as will a light bulb in an office.

Different pieces of equipment will use different amounts of energy.
For example, a light bulb consumes 75 watts of power, a desk top
computer and 15’’ monitor consumes 150 watts, a water heater consumes
3800 watts and a power station consumes 500 megawatts of power.

Energy inputs, outputs and efficiencies

A coal fired power station burns coal at a rate of 75kg of coal per
second.

Each kg of coal releases 27 million joules of energy

Total input for power station:

Power= work done/ time

Power= 75x27

Power= 2025 mj/s

So the power station produces 2025 million joules of energy per
second.

Output= 800 mw

Efficiency= 800/ 2025 x 100

= 39.5%

A water bath in a lab has a power rating of 2.5 kW. It was used to
heat tap water at 17°c to a temperature of 37°c for a biology
experiment on enzymes. It took 22mins and 45 secs before the water
reached the right temperature. The bath contained 30 litres of water

The specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 J kg-1K-1

Total energy used by heating element during the heating period.

Power= 2.5 kW

Time= 22 mins and 45 secs= 1365 seconds

Total energy used (energy output) = 1365x 2.5

= 3412.5 joules

Useful energy absorbed by water

Mass of substance= 30 litres

Specific heat capacity= 4.2 J kg-1 K-1

Temperature rise= 20°c

Energy absorbed= 30x4.2x20

= 2520 Jkg-1K-1

Efficiency= 3412.5/2520 x 100

= 73.8 %

Energy conversions

1. Electric fire

Electrical energy à heat energy, light energy + sound energy

2. A car

Potential energy (petrol) à kinetic energy, sound energy, + heat
energy.

The electric fire is more efficient because the heat energy that it
emits is useful. Whereas in most other energy conversions, such as the
car, heat energy is actually a waste product and is not used.

Task 6

[IMAGE]

The microscope is designed to magnify an object/specimen that is
placed onto the stage.

A mirror at the bottom of the microscope projects the light through a
hole in the stage and through the object. The objective lens picks up
this light and magnifies it. The light then continues through the tube
to the eye piece, which magnifies the image more before we see it.
Most microscopes have more than one objective lens, and these can be
changed to increase or decrease the magnification. The objective lens
can also be moved closer, or further away from the object to focus it.
This is done using the course focus knob. The fine focus knob can also
be used to focus the image further. The stage is used to place the
object on, and the stage clips to keep the object in place and top it
moving around.

[IMAGE]

PH meters are designed to tell you the pH of a solution quickly and
efficiently. They consist of three main parts; the sensing electrode,
the referencing electrode and the electronics of the meter

The special glass on the end of the sensing electrode senses H+ ions
and a millivoltage is generated. The solution in the bottom of the pH
meter that touches the special glass picks up this signal, a pure
silver wire dipped in silver chloride passes this signal from the
solution to the electrodes cable/connector.

The filling solution in the reference electrode has oH- ions in it.
This generates a millivoltage which is passed on in the same way as in
the sensing electrode.

The millivoltages are then passed on into the electronic part of the
pH meter. The pH meter then takes the inputs from the sensing
electrode and the referencing electrode and compares the two values to
get a result millivolt reading. The reading in mV is then converted
into a pH reading.

In modern pH meters both the sensing electrode and the referencing
electrode are contained in one glass tube, with the special glass of
the sensing electrode protruding from the bottom.

The light microscope

The purpose of the light microscope is to magnify images. Many factors
would have had to be considered when designing this equipment. For
example, where the object/specimen would be placed, how the image
would be magnified, how we would be able to see the image. These
factors are solved by the stage, lenses , eyepiece and built in light
sources. Other factors would include, where the microscope would be
used, for example, in a teaching lab. This is taken into account by
the size of the microscope. It is small enough to sit on the bench of
a teaching lab, and relatively inexpensive compared to other
microscopes, therefore teaching institutions can afford to purchase
more than one for their students.

Bibliography

http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_1/emspectrum.html

http://www.yesmagbc.ca/how_work/microscope.html

http://www.sensorex.com/support/education/pH_education.html
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