The worldwide electrical demand is going to double by the mid-century and triple by the end of century. As the demand will increase so will the generation, which means more fossil fuels will be used which in turn will create more environmental problems. Due to these environmental issues, many countries are now utilizing renewable resources for green electrical generation. Solar and Wind are the most abundant, developed and readily available sources for generation  and their share in the global energy index is increasing day by day. These renewable resources are, however, not reliable sources, their variable nature causes problems for the grid operators as other conventional power plants have to compensate for their variability.
To smooth out the fragmentary energy production by these renewable sources, low cost energy storage is necessary. Furthermore, the demand for electricity varies considerably with the peak demand lasting for only few hours. This leads to the construction of inefficient and expensive plants to meet the peak demand. By having electrical storage on large scale (Fig -1) which is available any time system planners will have to build sufficient generating capacity to meet average demand rather than peak load . Thus, electrical energy storage (EES) is going to play an important role in the future smart grid or for the integration of the renewables into the power system at present. EES can provide substantial benefits including load following,...
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