The American Dental Association Council on Dental Therapeutics (CDT-1986) developed guidelines for the design of clinical trials. These guidelines require that clinical trials: be crossover or parallel-designed, study subjects should represent typical product users, active agent should be compared with a placebo or active control, dental plaque and gingivitis scoring be conducted at baseline, six months and an intermediate interval.3
The antiplaque agents (action through plaque effects) can be subdivided for possible modes of action against plaque: prevent bacterial attachment (antiadhesive); inhibit bacterial division (antimicrobial agents); remove plaque (“chemical tooth brush”); and alter plaque ecology. Of all, antimicrobial agents have had the most success, with little or no achievements in the other areas.4
To date, a wide variety of antimicrobial agents have been studied in respect to the control of supragingival plaque. These agents can be divided into bisguanides, quaternary ammonium comp...
... middle of paper ...
..., Afflitto J, Coleman EJ. The effect of triclosan on mediators of gingival inflammation. J Clin Periodontol 1995;22(6):480-484.
20. WHO. Oral Health Surveys, Basic Methods. 4th ed. 1997. p.7.
21. Lang NP, Hotz P, Graf H, Geering AH, Saxer UP, Sturzenberger OP, Meckel AH. Effects of supervised chlorhexidine mouth rinses in children. A longitudinal clinical trial. J Periodontal Res 1982;17(1):101-111.
22. Jenkins S, Addy M, Newcombe RJ. A dose-response study of triclosan mouthrinses on plaque regrowth. J Clin Periodontal 1993 Sep; 20(8):609-612.
23. Niklaus P, Lang, Brecx MC. Chlorhexidine digluconate- an agent for chemical plaque control and prevention of gingival inflammation. J Periodontal Res 1986; 21(Suppl. s16):74-89.
24. Schulz KF, Altman DG, Moher D. CONSORT 2010 statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. BMJ 2010;340:c332.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- ... They were asked to perform mouth rinsing thoroughly once daily for 60s and spit out the solution. After this procedure, the children were instructed not to eat or drink anything for about thirty minutes. The above procedure was repeated on each school day during morning hours for a period of six months, starting October 2010. The subjects were instructed to report any adverse events such as sickness, change in taste perception, soreness of the tongue, edema, redness, sensitivity, burning sensation of the oral mucosa and visible staining during the course of the study, to the class teacher or investigator.... [tags: children, study, oral]
753 words (2.2 pages)
- Some people tend to believe that a dentist is all about pulling teeth, filling gaps, and drilling holes in a mouth. That may be true, but this is more about the person that treats a patient prior to a dentist drilling into a mouth. Dental Hygienists provide more than just the basic examination. They also give advice on how to properly brush and floss, the types of foods to avoid, and give examples of what teeth could look like if not taken care of correctly. A dental hygienist provides preventive, therapeutic, restorative and educational interventions to promote optimal oral health.... [tags: Oral hygiene, Periodontitis, Dental hygienist]
1173 words (3.4 pages)
- Electric Toothbrush Compared to Manual Toothbrush in the Reduction of Plaque PICO “For a Patient with a high accumulation of plaque, will an electric toothbrush, compared to a manual toothbrush, be more effective in reducing the accumulation of plaque?” Introduction Patients with a high plaque index present a case management issue for dental professionals. Oral hygiene instruction is implemented as a therapy and prevention tool by dental hygienists to reduce the plaque index. A common question asked by patients is the effectiveness of an electric toothbrush over a manual toothbrush.... [tags: Oral hygiene, Toothbrush]
1204 words (3.4 pages)
- ... Furthermore, IL-8 is known to be chemotactic for neutrophils, attracting them to sites of inflammation. Lastly, TNF- (tumor necrosis factor ) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that "stimulates bone resorption and induces the breakdown of the collagen matrix in the gingiva, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone" (Nield-Gehrig and Willmann, 2011). Other mediators that are secreted by cells as a result of an immunogenic response are PGE2 and MMPs. PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) are mediators of the prostaglandin family that are primarily released by neutrophils, fibroblasts, and macrophages during an inflammatory response.... [tags: reversible periodontal disease]
3188 words (9.1 pages)
- The Darkness Behind a Pretty Smile A white and pretty smile is not the same as healthy mouth. Since we are child, parents have told us about the importance of brushing our teeth after every meal, but do they name the importance of the daily floss with that frequency. As water and food are essential for our survival, Flossing is tremendously important for our health. Avoiding the use of dental floss during the childhood can bring some implications in the health after people reaches adulthood. Have you ever ask why people have more diseases after the 30s or 40s.... [tags: Oral hygiene, Periodontitis, Gingiva, Gingivitis]
807 words (2.3 pages)
- Objectives: Triphala is the combination of three medicinal plants, extensively used in ayurveda since ancient time. Triphala mouthwash is used in the treatment of periodontal diseases because of its antimicrobial and antioxidant property. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of Triphala mouthwash with 0.2% chlorhexidine in hospitalized periodontal disease patients. Materials and method: In this double blind randomized, multicentric clinical trial, 120 patients were equally distributed in three groups.... [tags: ayurvedic, plaque, dental]
795 words (2.3 pages)
- Teeth have been big news lately. First, there was the issue of whether flossing really helps lower the risk for tooth decay and gingivitis. And now, questions about how often we really need to get dental X-rays have made the news. The bottom line is that, clinically, these are complex issues that can 't easily be reduced to a simple sound bite. Maybe it 's time to take a step back and talk about something we can all agree on – toothbrushing. As a dentist, educator and clinical researcher (an academic dentist sounds so, well, dismissive), I was involved in a very small study, conducted in India, that examined whether taking a smart phone video selfie might help people learn to brush their tee... [tags: Oral hygiene, Toothbrush, Teeth, Tooth brushing]
1002 words (2.9 pages)
- ... Bacteria quickly multiply inside the mouth from food and beverage debris between teeth and near gum tissue. One of the best ways to remove debris is by flossing teeth each evening. A dentist can perform a tooth cleaning procedure or treat inflamed gums to reduce the incidence of halitosis. Teeth Whitening As people age, their teeth often develop discolorations from medications, smoking or food. Teeth whitening or bleaching procedures performed by a dentist are a highly effective way to improve the appearance of an individual’s smile.... [tags: oral health, teeth, gums]
556 words (1.6 pages)
- I can remember coming to school and hearing all my classmates talk about how much they hated going to the dentist. Going to the dentist was one thing that I have always loved to do. The sound of the tools and just the smell of the clinic was never a bad atmosphere to me, I actually enjoy the dentist. Laura was my first dental hygienist from as far back as I can remember, and she had the whitest teeth I have ever seen. I have honestly came to the conclusion that I am obsessed with teeth. With this being said, I have always felt and known that I wanted to be a dental hygienist.... [tags: Career Field Report]
1583 words (4.5 pages)
- 1. Describe the career. What are the typical job duties. Dental hygienist responsibilities are to clean teeth, examine patients for signs of oral diseases such as gingivitis, and provide other preventative dental care. They 're also responsible for educating patients on ways to improve and maintain good oral health. Dental hygienist removes tartar, stains, and plaque from teeth. Apply sealants and fluorides to help protect teeth. Take and develop dental x-rays. They also, keep track of patient care and treatment plans.... [tags: Dental hygienist, Hygiene, Dentistry, Patient]
859 words (2.5 pages)