Vital to maintenance of homeostasis is the regulation of plasma osmolality. The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system, which works to regulate blood pressure, plays a crucial role in fluid balance. When dehydration occurs, blood osmolality increases, which stimulates the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), ultimately leading to increased water reabsorption. This leads to more concentrated urine, and less concentrated plasma. Low plasma osmolality works in the opposite fashion: ADH release is inhibited, water reabsorption decreases, and urine is less concentrated. The added electrolytes and carbohydrates in Gatorade would facilitate greater fluid retention through stimulation of renin and vasopressin, increasing urinary sodium reabsorption (3). Studies of both urine volume and plasma volume changes are eff...
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...the effects of osmolality and carbohydrate content of ingested drinks. Nutrition 905-913, 2009.
3. Osterberg KL, Pallardy, SE, Johnson RJ, Horswill CA. Carbohydrate exerts a mild influence on fluid retention following exercise-induced dehydration. J Appl Physiol 108:245-250, 2010.
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5. Shirreffs SM, Aragon-Vargas LF, Keil M, Love TD, Phillips S. Rehydration after exercise in the heat: a comparison of 4 commonly used drinks. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 17:244-258, 2007.
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