In this section, I will review current literature about written CF. I will start with several definitions of written CF and CF’s possible facilitative role in language learning. Then, I will end this section with a review of previous studies done on the domain of CF.
Definition of Written Corrective Feedback (CF)
Written corrective feedback has been defined in some ways. In his controversial paper, Truscott (1996) defined it as “correction of grammatical errors for the purpose of improving a students’ ability to write accurately” (p.331), setting a focused parameter only on grammatical features of a piece of students’ writing.
In a similar fashion, Ellis (2009, 2012) explained that feedback on writing has three different forms: feedback on content, on organization, and on language or linguistic errors. The third kind of these forms is what he called as written CF. Ellis further classified written CF, based on strategies for providing it, into several types: direct (providing learners the correct form), indirect (giving indications that error are made, but not giving corrections), metalinguistic (informing learners the nature of their errors and/or giving metalinguistic explanation), focused (corrections targeted on limited types of errors only), unfocused (corrections given for any kind of errors made), electronic (indicating the errors made and providing links to resources that provide correct examples of/ explanation about the misused grammatical features), and reformulation (without altering the content, teachers rewrite the erroneous parts of learners’ writing and then ask them to compare the original and the modified versions).
Similarly, Polio’s (2012) definition of written CF is also emphasized on forms....
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...at the learners who received written CF managed to produce texts with better linguistic accuracy during revision sessions, but failed to exhibit a learning effect in a new piece of writing. Based on this result, Truscott and Hsu (2008) concluded that improvement made during revision sessions could not be considered as a learning predictor, casting doubt on the acceptability of the result of L2 writing-focused studies that put emphasis on revisions.
Responding to this, Bruton (2009) reviewed the study and managed to point out the possible reason why there was no improvement made in the post test. He asserted that the participants of the study had already showed a good performance since the pretest, so expecting them to make much improvement was simply out of question. In other words, there was a possibility that the result was compromised by the ceiling effect.
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- Corrective feedback has been in the focus of research in SLA during the last years and has become an important part in learners’ language acquisition. Ellis (1994) referred to feedback as “the information given to learners which they can use to revise their interlanguage.” He also distinguishes two different kinds of feedback, positive and negative feedback; positive feedback has to do with the information that indicates that a hypothesis is incorrect. Ellis also mentioned some other forms of feedback such as direct or correction, indirect or the request for conformation, on-record which supplies ‘direct negative evidence’, and off-record which supplies ‘indirect negative feedback’; the neg... [tags: Education, foreign languages]
992 words (2.8 pages)
- This study investigated the efficacy of two types of focused written corrective feedback (direct feedback with metalinguistic explanation and direct feedback only) as well as their correlation with language analytic ability. Method and results There were three questions the researcher aimed to answer in this study: 1. Does focused written corrective feedback (CF) have an effect on intermediate ESL learners' acquisition of English articles. 2. Is there any difference in the effect of direct correction with and without metalinguistic feedback on ESL learners' acquisition of English articles.... [tags: Metalinguistic Explanation, Criticism]
1224 words (3.5 pages)
- Study Box 1 Background This study investigated how both teachers and ESL students perceive written corrective feedback (WCF), focusing on their perception about the usefulness of different types and amount of WCF as well as their reasons for having such perceptions. Research questions 1. What amount of WCF do ESL students and teachers think is most useful, and why. 2. What types of WCF do students and teachers think are most useful, and why. 3. What types of errors do students and teachers think should be corrected, and why.... [tags: Chi Square Test, Teacher Perception]
1239 words (3.5 pages)
- Summary of Written Feedback The positive feedback provided me with things my respondents believe I should continue doing. Some respondents noted that I am confident and motivated. The results also showed that my respondents think I am efficient. Another response was that I adapt to change well. Other words like cheerful, encouraging and fun to be around were some of the positive responses received. Great communication is also something noted that I should continue to do. My responses showed that I am a hard worker.... [tags: Negative feedback, Feedback, Communication]
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- Introduction Error correction is a delicate balance, and not for the faint-of-heart. Error correction of ELL students is a useful tool in the hands of a skillful educator. It can point a learner toward discovering correct answers, motivate and push them to work a little harder, and engage a receptive student with useful and informative feedback. Error correction, however, is NOT a punishment. Nor is it an opportunity to denigrate or shame a learner – consciously or unconsciously. Most of us want to be corrected constructively, thoughfully, and respectfully.... [tags: corrective feedback, anxiety, stress]
1097 words (3.1 pages)
- Getting (and giving) feedback is one of the most crucial parts of good communication and is especially important for leaders who must be sure their messages are received and decoded by their audience. The sender of a message needs the response of the receiver in order to decide the effectiveness of communication. Because communication is a two way process, without feedback from both the receiver (and the sender in a constant loop), the message contents may be misinterpreted or lost. Feedback tells the sender whether the message is received successfully and/or whether the receiver liked it or not.... [tags: Negative feedback, Feedback, Positive feedback]
788 words (2.3 pages)
- Lyster (2004) examined the differential effects of prompts and recasts during FFI activities. For meeting the objectives of the research, 4 teachers and 179 students from 8 different 5th grade classes were chosen to participate in the quasi-experimental study, in which the effects of the FFI were examined. In addition to that, the effects of CF on the integration of ability of the students to effective allocate the grammar gender in case of French. Three out of four teachers basically implemented the FFI treatment, which was basically designed to attract the selected and chosen noun endings, which would comfortably make predictions about grammatical gender and would also make provision of... [tags: Scientific method, Research, Grammatical gender]
1123 words (3.2 pages)
- The objectives of this study were: “(1) to investigate whether targeted corrective feedback on ESL student writing results in improved accuracy in new pieces of writing over a 2-month period and (2) to investigate whether there is a differential effect on accuracy for different corrective feedback options.” (p.103) Methods and results This study aimed to answer the following questions: 1. Does accuracy in the use of two functions of the English article system vary over time. 2. Does accuracy in the use of these features vary according to the type of corrective feedback provided.... [tags: Corrective Feedback, Metalinguistic]
1047 words (3 pages)
- 5. Vallerand, R.J., Reid, G. (1988). On the relative effects of positive and negative verbal feedback on males’ and females’ intrinsic motivation. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 20 (3), 239-250. The goal of this study was to analyze the effects of both positive and negative feedback on male and female students’ intrinsic motivation. Research was conduced with a random sample consisting of 30 male and 30 female undergraduate students. All students were studying physical education in the Montreal, Canada area.... [tags: Negative feedback, Feedback, Positive feedback]
711 words (2 pages)
- Alternative Feedback Techniques Feedback is generally defined as information (…) of a person’s performance of a task, which is used as a basis for improvement (oxford dictionaries). The importance of feedback for successful learning and teaching has been known for over a century (Thorndike, 1913) and the need of frequent feedback in order to monitor learning and progress has been emphasised in several studies (Price et al.). Good quality feedback is meant to identify the gap between current achievement and actual expectations and therefore enable the student to improve his/her performance in subsequent assignments.... [tags: Education, Assessment, Feedback, Audio feedback]
855 words (2.4 pages)