Effects of Written Corrective Feedback (CF) Essay

Effects of Written Corrective Feedback (CF) Essay

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Literature Review
In this section, I will review current literature about written CF. I will start with several definitions of written CF and CF’s possible facilitative role in language learning. Then, I will end this section with a review of previous studies done on the domain of CF.
Definition of Written Corrective Feedback (CF)
Written corrective feedback has been defined in some ways. In his controversial paper, Truscott (1996) defined it as “correction of grammatical errors for the purpose of improving a students’ ability to write accurately” (p.331), setting a focused parameter only on grammatical features of a piece of students’ writing.
In a similar fashion, Ellis (2009, 2012) explained that feedback on writing has three different forms: feedback on content, on organization, and on language or linguistic errors. The third kind of these forms is what he called as written CF. Ellis further classified written CF, based on strategies for providing it, into several types: direct (providing learners the correct form), indirect (giving indications that error are made, but not giving corrections), metalinguistic (informing learners the nature of their errors and/or giving metalinguistic explanation), focused (corrections targeted on limited types of errors only), unfocused (corrections given for any kind of errors made), electronic (indicating the errors made and providing links to resources that provide correct examples of/ explanation about the misused grammatical features), and reformulation (without altering the content, teachers rewrite the erroneous parts of learners’ writing and then ask them to compare the original and the modified versions).
Similarly, Polio’s (2012) definition of written CF is also emphasized on forms....


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...at the learners who received written CF managed to produce texts with better linguistic accuracy during revision sessions, but failed to exhibit a learning effect in a new piece of writing. Based on this result, Truscott and Hsu (2008) concluded that improvement made during revision sessions could not be considered as a learning predictor, casting doubt on the acceptability of the result of L2 writing-focused studies that put emphasis on revisions.
Responding to this, Bruton (2009) reviewed the study and managed to point out the possible reason why there was no improvement made in the post test. He asserted that the participants of the study had already showed a good performance since the pretest, so expecting them to make much improvement was simply out of question. In other words, there was a possibility that the result was compromised by the ceiling effect.




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