The majority of cows that have mastitis show a decrease in milk production not only during the time that they are infected, but also throughout the rest of that lactation and even during subsequent lactations. This decrease can be caused by toxins released by the infecting pathogen, the immune response to the infection or behaviours resulting from the infection.
Pathogenesis of Mastitis
A cow’s main external defense mechanism against bacteria is a keratin plug in the teat canal that provides a physical barrier to prevent bacteria migrating into the teat canal and teat cistern17. The keratin plug takes 30 minutes to two hours to reform after milking, during which time pathogens are able to invade. Injury to the teat and keratin plug can also occur through chemical, physical or thermal agents2. Once the bacteria penetrate the teat and migrate into the udder glands and cisterns, the immune system is responsible for identifying and fighting the infection.
Somatic cells are a mixture of epithelial cells that are naturally shed from the udder lining and the leukocytes of the immune system18. Leukocytes are further subdivided into 3 types of cells- lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. Macrophages circulate throughout the udder and recognise any foreign cells such as pathogens. They then release chemical signals which trigger the movement of neutrophils via chemotaxis from blood vessels into the udder to destroy the pathogens. Along with neutrophils, macrophages are also responsible for phagocytosis of pathogens. Lymphocytes contain molecules that recognise any entity they encounter as either foreign (harmful) or originating from the body (usually harmless). This increase in the number of immune cells manifests ...
... middle of paper ...
...n its treatment or prevention (such as germicidal teat dips) can inhibit starter microorganisms added during manufacturing30. Since elevated SCC levels reflect increased immune response, the rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide produced as part of leukocyte activity also increases. ROS are formed in the place of water when insufficient electrons are transferred from fats and carbohydrates to oxygen atoms31. Small amounts of ROS are a normal product of metabolism, but high levels are harmful due to their extremely reactive nature and can damage macromolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids. When ROS react with lipids found in milk the effect is a bitter taste and/or an “off” smell14. These chemical effects of the immune response and disease prevention/treatment ultimately result in lower quality products that are more expensive to produce.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- As a child you were most likely bombarded with people reminding you to drink your milk; your parents harping that milk makes you bigger and stronger or the American Dairy Farmers ever present slogan of the 1980’s, “Milk it does a body good” or the most recent “Got milk?” (Rosenburg). Contrary to the preaching about the benefits of milk and what you may have seen or heard on billboards and television commercials, the reality is that milk does your body more harm than good with the use of hormones and the adverse effects that milk has on your body.... [tags: milk, hormones, body]
1250 words (3.6 pages)
- Mastitis is an inflammatory disease of the udder that can be caused by as many as 100 different pathogens. Mastitis can present as either a clinical or subclinical infection. A clinical infection results in visible changes to the affected cow’s udder including harness and redness as well as producing flakes and clots in the milk. The immune response to the pathogen is also reflected in an elevated Somatic Cell Count (SCC), which is tested as one of many quality control checks performed on dairy products between the farm and consumer.... [tags: Bacteria, Immune system, Infection, Milk]
1126 words (3.2 pages)
- Factors Influencing SCC and Susceptibility to Mastitis As the disease that has the highest economic impact to the dairy industry, it is important to understand the factors that contribute to mastitis susceptibility. Some of these factors include the age, yield, breeding and udder conformation of the cow, the presence of other illnesses and the management practices employed. Age & Lactation Point Somatic Cell Count (SCC) increases naturally with age and, like humans, immune function decreases to make an older cow more likely to develop mastitis.... [tags: Milk, Dairy farming, Immune system, Cattle]
1055 words (3 pages)
- 1. Yield management is a technique used in reservations, in a recent analysis by Donaghy et al(2008) the definition of yield management states that ‘Yield management is a revenue maximisation technique which aims to increase net yield through the predicted allocation of available bedroom capacity to predetermined market segments at optimum price’. This practice, used in almost all hotels, can be affected by many issues that can have a detrimental effect on profits, image and productivity. 2. Conceptually, yield management works within a framework set out by Jones and Lockwood (2005) who identified strategic operations as being concerned with the long term (focused on by head office), medium... [tags: revenue maximisation, net yield, hotels]
1329 words (3.8 pages)
- Got milk. If you do, you are at risk of cancer, osteoporosis, calcium deficiency, diabetes, heart disease, and atherosclerosis (PCRM). You might be thinking that I have gone completely mad. Of course milk is good for health; we all grew up drinking milk. We are told by the ads, the campaigns, and the culture that milk is good for us. We learnt about the importance of drinking milk and consuming dairy products in our health education class. In fact, they are in the food pyramid. The truth is milk does harm to you body, the word “milk” isn’t as comforting as it sounds.... [tags: milk, medical,]
725 words (2.1 pages)
- In May 2015, an outbreak of Listeria Monocytogenes spreading across four states left 10 people hospitalized, and three dead. The outbreak emerged due to a facility’s failure to manufacture and package foods under proper conditions, necessary to minimize the growth of microorganisms. Immediately prompting a recall of ice cream made in blue Bell Creameries. This essay will analyze the effects that milk has on the human body and will offer evidence that cow’s milk does not “do a body good” as the advertising world would lead a person to believe.... [tags: Milk, Dairy farming, Dairy, Cattle]
1200 words (3.4 pages)
- STAGE 2 ESL STUDIES INVESTIGATION REPORT How significant are the issues relating to milk safety in China. 1. Introduction In September 2008, Chinese media reported that tens of thousands of Chinese infants had fallen sick after drinking domestic infant formula. The formula found had a mixture of chemicals such as industrial chemical, melamine (Sharma, 2014; International Risk Governance Council, 2010). Due to this melamine scandal, Chinese consumers’ confidences in domestic dairy products were damaged (Sharma, 2014).... [tags: Milk, Dairy, Dairy product, Powdered milk]
1016 words (2.9 pages)
- A Discussion of the Social Effects of Biotechnology The world of work in agriculture is in a process of rapid change. While "change" is by no means alien to agriculture, something new has entered the arena which promises and/or threatens to fundamentally alter agricultural practices across the globe. Biotechnology has already begun to be implemented resulting in what may be important shifts in not only agricultural production, but indeed changes in the very makeup of agricultural products themselves.... [tags: Agriculture Agricultural Papers]
2015 words (5.8 pages)
- When women can work rather than stay at home with their children, it may be hard for mothers to think about only breast-feeding their baby because they need to return to work. Since they will not be at home to feed their child, they may select infant formula such as Similac as an alternative to breast milk. However, while Similac may be a good alternative to breast-feeding when necessary, its benefits do not outweigh the benefits of breastfeeding. A study, published in JAMA Pediatrics, has found that the nutrients in mothers’ breast milk might help with her child’s brain development.... [tags: Breastfeeding, Breast milk, Infant formula]
1750 words (5 pages)
- Introduction Breastmilk has been determined and validated as the most essential nutrition for infants 0 to one-year-old. Evidently, breast milk has been confirmed as superior to infant formula due to the validated benefits it provides for the infant. Additionally, the economic aspect is also considerably vital to breastfeeding parents. In regards to the mother’s health, breastfeeding mothers, have reported increased rate of metabolism. According to Sierra, C., et al. (2014), the effect of prebiotics on formula fed babies in their first year of life, in relation to the vulnerability of the infant’s intestinal organs to bacteria and infection, resulting from formula feeding, was reviewed, usin... [tags: Breastfeeding, Breast milk, Infant formula]
1431 words (4.1 pages)
- The Legalization Of Marijuana And The United States
- We See The Thought Process About Race From Someone Who Is Not White, And. White
- Genesis 1-11 Are The Most Key Chapters For The Christian Faith
- The Music Video : A Song By Dream And Synth Pop Artist
- The Lack Of Equality And Respect Towards The Lgbt Community
- How I Got The Prince