Essay about Effects Of The On Milk Yield

Essay about Effects Of The On Milk Yield

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Effect on Milk Yield
The majority of cows that have mastitis show a decrease in milk production not only during the time that they are infected, but also throughout the rest of that lactation and even during subsequent lactations. This decrease can be caused by toxins released by the infecting pathogen, the immune response to the infection or behaviours resulting from the infection.
Pathogenesis of Mastitis
A cow’s main external defense mechanism against bacteria is a keratin plug in the teat canal that provides a physical barrier to prevent bacteria migrating into the teat canal and teat cistern17. The keratin plug takes 30 minutes to two hours to reform after milking, during which time pathogens are able to invade. Injury to the teat and keratin plug can also occur through chemical, physical or thermal agents2. Once the bacteria penetrate the teat and migrate into the udder glands and cisterns, the immune system is responsible for identifying and fighting the infection.
Somatic cells are a mixture of epithelial cells that are naturally shed from the udder lining and the leukocytes of the immune system18. Leukocytes are further subdivided into 3 types of cells- lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. Macrophages circulate throughout the udder and recognise any foreign cells such as pathogens. They then release chemical signals which trigger the movement of neutrophils via chemotaxis from blood vessels into the udder to destroy the pathogens. Along with neutrophils, macrophages are also responsible for phagocytosis of pathogens. Lymphocytes contain molecules that recognise any entity they encounter as either foreign (harmful) or originating from the body (usually harmless). This increase in the number of immune cells manifests ...

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...n its treatment or prevention (such as germicidal teat dips) can inhibit starter microorganisms added during manufacturing30. Since elevated SCC levels reflect increased immune response, the rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide produced as part of leukocyte activity also increases. ROS are formed in the place of water when insufficient electrons are transferred from fats and carbohydrates to oxygen atoms31. Small amounts of ROS are a normal product of metabolism, but high levels are harmful due to their extremely reactive nature and can damage macromolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids. When ROS react with lipids found in milk the effect is a bitter taste and/or an “off” smell14. These chemical effects of the immune response and disease prevention/treatment ultimately result in lower quality products that are more expensive to produce.

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