The internet was first used to a limited extent during the 1992 election by the Clinton campaign using email, bulletin boards and discussion groups(Wagner, & Gainous, 2009). “The discussion group 'alt.politics.Clinton' received approximately 800 postings a day at the height of the campaign”(Wagner, & Gainous, 2009). The internet first became important in the 1996 election with each major candidate running for president created their own website(Johnson, Braima, & Sothirajah, 1999). These websites have changed from basic information sites “brochure-ware” to large-scale feedback based fund-raising enterprises(Trammell, Williams, Postelnicu, & Landreville, 2006). These changes have mirrored the advancement and sophistication of the internet itself. Much like the internet, online campaigning has moved from novelty to necessity; This is true at the national level as well as the local level. A Pew Research Center study showed that during the “2008 election 74% of internet users went online to take part in, or get news and information about the campaign, representing 55% of the entire adult population” (Smith 2009); This use is expected to grow into the future. This study used telephone interviews conducted November 20 to December 4, 2008 among a sample of 2,254 adults, 18 and older. The sample used a random digit sample from telephone exchanges in the continental United States.
Fund-raising is the...
... middle of paper ...
...ternet & American Life Project. Retrieved from
Trammell, K.D., Williams, A.P., Postelnicu, M., & Landreville, K.D. (2006). Evolution of online campaigning: Increasing interactivity in candidate web sites and blogs through text and technical features. Mass Communication & Society, 9(1), 21-44.
Xenos, M., & Moy, P. (2007). Direct and differential effects of the internet on political and civic engagement. Journal of Communication, 57(4), 704-718.
Wagner, K.M., & Gainous, J. (2009). Electronic grassroots: Does online campaigning work?. The Journal of Legislative Studies, 15(4), 502-520.
Wattal, S., Schuff., D., Mandviwalla, M., & Williams, C.B. (2010). Web 2.0 and politics: The 2008 U.S. presidential election and an e-politics research agenda. MIS Quarterly, 34(4), 669-688.
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