Other studies (e.g., Gordon & Debus, 2002; Irwin & Lupker, 1983; Kearian, 1986) have also found that the deeper the coding of information, the more durable the memory. For example, Gordon and Debus have demonstrated that contextual modification in teaching, task requirements, and assessment processes can increase college students’ use of deep processing approaches to learning. They argued that deep processing approach help students’ problem solving abilities, while the use of shallow processing approaches results in study behaviours that led to low quality learning outcomes. This was in support of earlier findings by Craik & Lockhart (1972) which posits that deep proc...
... middle of paper ...
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Irwin, D., & Lupker, S. (1983). Semantic priming of pictures and words: A level of processing approach. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 245-260.
Kearians, J. (1986). Visual spatial memory in aboriginal and white Australian children. Australian Journal of Psychology, 38, 203-214.
Raajimakers, J., & Shiffrin, R. (1981). Search of associative memory. Psychological Review, 88, 93-134.
Smith, S., Glenberg, A., & Bjork, R. (1978). Environmental context and human memory. Memory & Cognition, 6, 342-353.
Smith, M., Theodore, L., & Franklin, P. (1983). The relationship between contextual facilitation and depth of processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 9 (4), 697-712.
Schulman, A. I. (1971). Recognition memory for targets from a scanned word list. British Journal of Psychology, 62, 335-346.
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