Essay about Effects Of Hiv On Children 's Cognitive And Motor Development

Essay about Effects Of Hiv On Children 's Cognitive And Motor Development

Length: 1592 words (4.5 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Effects of HIV on Children’s Cognitive and Motor Development
From birth and all the way until adulthood, all humans go through a long path of development. Physical growth occurs along this path, but along with it, the most important and fundamental components of every human being also happens, this is known as cognitive development. For that reason, cognitive and motor development are fundamental parts for the healthy growth of a child. However, there are factors that can inhibit development and cause damage, including infectious and sociocultural factors (Msellati et al., 1993).
One infectious agent that interferes with the healthy development of children is the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). HIV is a neurotropic virus that affects the central nervous system (CNS) from the earliest stages of infection, so many patients infected show symptoms of neurological and psychological nature. One of the darkest sides of HIV is its form of attack, because it is quiet and unstoppable. Not only it decreases the body 's defenses, but it is also especially attracted by the brain. HIV is able to get across the blood brain barrier, which is the basic structure that protects the brain from infection and other harmful bodies. Here, it infects the immune system cells that protect the brain. Once infected, HIV begins to reproduce and infect other cells around. Neurons are usually not infected, but the presence of HIV in the brain can damage or kill nerve cells, either by viral replication or toxic effects that slowly induce neuronal death (White et al., 1995).
In the case of children infected with HIV, the virus grows rapidly causing neurocognitive impairment. Such impairment is clinically manifested by a decrease in the cognitive abilities ...


... middle of paper ...


...of elective caesarean section had reduced to less than 1% the likelihood of a child being born infected. Another consideration relates to the fact that although the preventive therapy has achieved to minimize the likelihood of HIV infection in newborns, these children would continue to be exposed to maternal illness and other social implications, which are positively correlated to cognitive development (Dobrova-Krol et al., 2010).
In short, infected children have significant delays in the development of gross motor skills compared to their peers. Children with severe medical symptoms have more frequent delays in cognitive and motor development, but many infected children can follow a normal development with appropriate treatment. Delays in motor development are observed more frequently, continuous and consistent than in children older infants (Shanbhag et al., 2005).

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

The Effects Of Being Born For Hiv Positive Mothers Essay examples

- The Effects on Children Born to HIV Positive Mothers Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is probably one of the most known sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. It is a virus that stays in your body once it is transmitted, and there is no cure. HIV over time can lead to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Even though there is no cure, modern medicine can help to slow down the progression of HIV, which is called antiretroviral therapy (ART) (AIDS.GOV, 2015). Unfortunately not everyone has access to this medication and HIV continues to take people’s lives daily....   [tags: AIDS, HIV, Antiretroviral drug, Immunodeficiency]

Better Essays
1794 words (5.1 pages)

Essay on Effects of Obesity on the Motor Development of Children

- Obesity in the United States has become an epidemic. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010), one out of every three people in the United States are now overweight or obese. Additionally, one out of every three children between the ages of 10 and 17 are not at a healthy weight (CDC, 2010). America is officially the fattest country in the world, topping Mexico and the United Kingdom by more than six percent of the population (CDC, 2010). These frightening statistics have many consequences for American citizens, especially the youth....   [tags: Child Development ]

Better Essays
1364 words (3.9 pages)

Physical Development During The Prenatal Stages Essay

- Prenatal Development: Physical: During prenatal development, the mother's general health and age is very important. Nutrition, anxiety, and stress are a big part of the physical development during the prenatal stages. Referenced by Eysenck & Schoenthaler (1997) in our text, “A rapidly growing body of evidence reveals that when food sources are short on protein or essential vitamins and minerals during prenatal and early postnatal development, an infant’s physical, socio-emotional, and intellectual development can be compromised” (as cited by Broderick & Blewitt, 2010, p....   [tags: chromosomal errors, pregnancies]

Better Essays
1806 words (5.2 pages)

The Effects Of Fine And Gross Motor Skills Essays

- During the narrative observation, the child spent the majority of the time expressing her creativity and artistic abilities through various crafts, such as coloring, painting and drawing. The process of creating each of her projects displayed a variety of fine and gross motor skills that she has developed or expanded through the course of her development. When drawing with crayons, the child held the Crayola at an angle within her hand while also having her thumb and index finger correctly positioned, also known as the Pincer grasp (Chapter 4 Lecture)....   [tags: Motor control, Motor skills, Fine motor skill]

Better Essays
2392 words (6.8 pages)

A Report On Fine Motor Skills Essay

- Fine motor skills, one of the area’s Justin scored low on seems to be connected to ADHD and DCD. Being an observer and administering this ASQ to Justin, my observations of Justin and his attention span and hyperactivity lead me in the direction of not thinking it is necessarily he is incapable of preforming some of the tasks, but that he finds it difficult to concentrate. “ADHD is characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, affecting 3 to 5% of school-age children....   [tags: Motor control, Developmental psychology]

Better Essays
1220 words (3.5 pages)

Essay on Physical and Motor Development

- Physical and motor development are two similar but different areas that describe child development. Physical development encompasses all of the various changes a child's body goes through. Those changes include height, weight, and brain development. Motor development is the development of control over the body. This control would involve developing reflexes such as blinking, large motor skills like walking, and fine motor skills like manipulating their fingers to pick up small objects like Cheerios....   [tags: Child Development, Physical Development]

Better Essays
1405 words (4 pages)

Hiv / Aids And Its Effects On Africa Essays

- Introduction It has been thirty-five years since the official discovery of HIV. Although great strides and advances in science have allowed those infected to live long productive lives, globally, millions have died. Of the many countries HIV and AIDS have afflicted, no country has been more impacted by the devastation of the incurable disease than Africa. “Sub-Saharan Africa has the most serious HIV and AIDS epidemic in the world. The gravity of this epidemic has made an impact and gained attention of organizations created to help....   [tags: AIDS, HIV, Africa, Condom]

Better Essays
796 words (2.3 pages)

The Relationship Between Physical Growth And Motor Development Essay

- The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between physical growth and motor development in 816 children between 4months and 24 months. The gross motor development assessments looked at six different milestones, these included; sitting without support, hands-and-knees crawling, standing with assistance, walking with assistance, standing alone and walking alone. The assessments were taken at monthly periods and then bimonthly from the age of 12months until the child could walk alone or had reached 24months of age....   [tags: Child development, Developmental psychology]

Better Essays
1096 words (3.1 pages)

HIV Essay

- HIV People who inherit only one copy of a mutated gene that has an effect on HIV's ability to enter CD4 T-helper cells appear to be substantially less likely to become infected with the virus, according to a new report by researchers at New York University School of Medicine in New York City and collaborators at other institutions. Such a protective effect, if proven, falls far short of completely safeguarding individuals who carry a single copy of the gene mutation from the risk of HIV infection....   [tags: HIV and AIDS]

Free Essays
420 words (1.2 pages)

HIV Essay

- HIV Like the majority of the American population I have lived in a cloud of ignorance about the HIV and AIDS crisis. I have never know anyone close to me that has been infected with either of the two viruses. So when the option to research something to do with sexuality arouse I felt this would definitely further my education about a lethal killer that is roaming this earth. Since I knew next to nothing about this topic I will start from the begging of the disease and discuss where it's at now....   [tags: HIV and AIDS]

Better Essays
1857 words (5.3 pages)