Essay on The Effects Of Drought Stress On Photosynthesis

Essay on The Effects Of Drought Stress On Photosynthesis

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Fig 2. Effects of drought stress on photosynthesis. Drought stress causes accumulation of reactive oxygen species by disturbing the balance between productions of reactive oxygen species and the antioxidant defense which induces oxidative stress. During drought stress plants close stomata which decrease the CO2 influx. Besides reducing the carboxylation reduction in CO2 also directs more electrons to form reactive oxygen species. Under severe drought condition photosynthesis is limited by decrease in the activities of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK). To match the reduced requirements of NADPH production, non-cyclic electron transport is down regulated which reduce ATP synthesis (Farooq et al., 2008).

Photosynthesis is highly sensitive to water stress. Plant photosynthesis decrease with reduction in relative water content and leaf water potential. Mechanism of photosynthesis involves various components such as photosynthetic pigments and photosystem, the electron transport system, and CO2 reduction pathway. Any damage of this photosynthetic component at any stage due to stress may reduce the photosynthetic capacity of green plant. Change in the pool of photosynthesizing pigments, low CO2 uptake due to stomatal closure and resistance, poor assimilation rates in photosynthetic leaves are prominent due to water stress. Several studies have showed drought stress changes photosynthetic pigment and components (Anjum et al., 2003), damage photosynthetic apparatus (Fu J. and Huang, 2001), and diminished activities of Calvin cycle enzymes.

Decreased in photos...

... middle of paper ...

...imit CO2 fixation (Farooq, 2009).

Drought is a worldwide problem constraining global food production. Drought stress affects plant growth and overall yield. Following drought stomata close which results decline in net photosynthesis. Stomata conductance is controlled by soil moisture availability as well as by complex interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Depending upon the severity of drought activities of enzymes involved in carbon assimilation and adenosine triphosphate synthesis decrease and sometimes even inhibited. The main factors for reduction in plant growth and productivity under drought is the production of reactive oxygen species in organelles including chloroplast, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. The reactive oxygen species target the peroxidation of cellular membrane lipids and degradation of enzyme proteins and nucleic acids.

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