usage of chlorine in water treatment was first applied back in 1990’s. Chlorine has been mostly used in water treatment than any other application because it is very active and it destroys a wide range of harmful bacteria and viruses in the water. Disinfection of drinking water is one of the most important and successful accomplishment for public health because it has done a major reduction of diseases that are caused by drinking unsafe water, such as typhoid, cholera and other waterborne diseases. Even after thirty years of its existence chlorine is still one of the biggest application used when cleaning water for health benefits around the world. The formation of Chlorination Disinfection by product is formed when the organic material in water reacts with chlorine. The formation of chlorination disinfection depends on some many factors, for example: type of treatment that is being used while treating water, chlorine dose which is the main indicator, temperature, time of the residence and pH. Mixture of different by-products may be found in different location making it more complicated to asses some health effects of disinfection by product. (Mark, David, James, James, Nick,2009).
. WHAT ARE DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBPS)? Of these chemicals, THMs and HAAs are most often found in chlorinated drinking water. Others, such as HANs and MX, are formed in smaller amounts during the chlorination process. Still other DBPs have not yet been chemically identified. DBPs include: • Trihalomethanes (THMs) • Haloacetic Acids (HAAs) • Haloacetonitriles (HANs) •
most widely used drinking-water disinfectant in water treatment plants but has the disadvant...
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...e of concern about these by-products in the water supply, chlorine is now kept to minimum levels, and other methods of disinfection are being used more frequently. Chloramines form more stable disinfectants and pose less risk of harmful by-products, but cost more to use. Other methods focus on removing the organisms through coagulation, sedimentation, and improved filtration. The functions of chlorination are to disinfect water or wastewater, decolorize waters or fabrics, sanitize and clean surfaces, remove iron and manganese, and reduce odors. However, the odor of certain compounds, such as some phenolics, is aggravated through a reaction with chlorine. Certain soluble metals can be made insoluble through oxidation by chlorine (soluble Fe2+ is oxidized to insoluble Fe3+), making the metal easier to remove through sedimentation or filtration.
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