METABOLISM IN ECTOTHERMS AND ENDOTHERMS;
EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE
BIO 207 SECTION 4SV3
DECEMBER 7, 2014
All living organisms require energy to perform their daily life activities. This energy is obtained in the form of ATP by a number of chemical reactions that results in breakdown or building up of different molecules. The sum of all the enzyme-catalyzed reactions inside the body is termed as metabolism. All these reactions are very important in maintaining the physiological functions of the body. The measure of the energy metabolism per unit time is termed as metabolic rate, and it determines the ability of a living organism to sustain life under various conditions. The metabolic rate of an animal at rest under normal conditions is known as the basal metabolic rate. However, it changes when the animal is exposed to different environmental conditions involving temperature, diet, time of the day, torpor etc. Thus, changing metabolic rate is an approach by which living organisms maintain their homeostasis that plays a critical role in enduring life.
Metabolic rate of smaller animals is always higher than the larger animals. This is because it is proportional to the body weight of the animal raise to the power 0.75. This is known as the Brody Kleiber relationship. Since the rate of heat loss is directly proportional to the surface area, smaller mammals exhibit higher metabolic rates due to lesser surface area exposed. Besides Brody Kleiber relationship, the most common method in measuring the metabolic rate of a living organism is by indirect calariometry. In this method, the metabolic rate is determined by measuring oxygen consumption of an animal un...
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...vergently selected for basal metabolic rate: a test of hypotheses on the evolution of endothermy. Journal Of Evolutionary Biology, 22(6), 1212-1220. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2009.01734.x
Kobbe, S., Nowack, J., & Dausmann, K. (2014). Torpor is not the only option: seasonal variations of the thermoneutral zone in a small primate. Journal Of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic & Environmental Physiology, 184(6), 789-797. doi:10.1007/s00360-014-0834-z
Kohsaka, A., Das, P., Hashimoto, I., Nakao, T., Deguchi, Y., Gouraud, S. S., & ... Maeda, M. (2014). The Circadian Clock Maintains Cardiac Function by Regulating Mitochondrial Metabolism in Mice. Plos ONE, 9(11), 1-16. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112811
Speakman, J. R. (2013, March). Measuring Energy Metabolism in the Mouse – Theoretical, Practical, and Analytical Considerations. In http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
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